References for Black holes


  1. M Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an idea abandoned by Newtonians, hated by Einstein, and gambled on by Hawking became loved (Yale University Press, New Haven-London, 2015).
  2. M Begelman and M Rees, Gravity's Fatal Attraction: Black Holes in the Universe (Scientific American Library, New York, 1996).
  3. S Chandrasekhar, The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes (Clarendon Press, 1998).
  4. J M Galat, Black Holes and Supernovas (Capstone, 2011).
  5. S S Gubser and F Pretorius, The Little Book of Black Holes (Princeton University Press, 2017).
  6. S Hawking, A Brief History of Time (Bantam Press, London-New York, 1988).
  7. S Hawking, Black Holes: The Reith Lectures (Random House, 2016).
  8. S Latta, Black Holes: The Weird Science of the Most Mysterious Objects in the Universe (Twenty-First Century Books, 2017).
  9. A I Miller, Empire of the Stars: Obsession, Friendship, and Betrayal in the Quest for Black Holes (Houghton Mufflin, Boston, 2005).
  10. D Nardo, Black Holes (Independent Publishing Platform, 2015).
  11. I D Novikov, Black Holes and the Universe (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995).
  12. C Oxlade, The Mystery of Black Holes (Heinemann Library, 1999).
  13. D J Raine and E G Thomas, Black Holes: An Introduction (Imperial College Press, 2010).
  14. D M Rau, Black Holes (Capstone, 2015).
  15. K S Thorne, Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy (W W Norton, 1994).
  16. W H Tucker, Chandra's Cosmos: Dark Matter, Black Holes, and Other Wonders Revealed by NASA's Premier X-Ray Observatory (Smithsonian Institution, 2017).


  17. S Chandrasekhar, The Black Hole in Astrophysics: The Origin of the Concept and its Role, Contemporary Physics 15 (1974), 1-24.
  18. A Chodos (ed.), 1783: John Michell anticipates black holes, Physics History 18 (10) (2009).
  19. F Dyson, Chandrasekhar's role in 20th-century science, Physics Today 63 (12) (2010), 44-48.
  20. J Eisenstaedt, The Early Interpretation of the Schwarzschild Solution, in D Howard and J Stachel (eds), Einstein and the History of General Relativity: Einstein Studies 1 (Birkhauser, Boston, 1989), 213-233.
  21. M Finkel, Star Eater, National Geographic Magazine (March 2014).
  22. P Gilster, Cygnus X-1: A Black Hole Confirmed, Centauri Dreams,
  23. S Hossenfelder, Are Singularities Real?, The Nature of Reality, PBS (9 December 2015).
  24. J McClintock, Do Black Hole exist?, Sky and Telescope (January 1988), 28-33.
  25. A I Miller, S Chandrasekhar: the student who took on the world's top astrophysicist, The Guardian (19 October 2017).
  26. C Montgomery, W Orchiston and I Whittingham, Michell, Laplace and the origin of the black hole concept, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 12 (2) (2009), 90-96.
  27. S Schaffer, John Mitchell and Black Holes, Journal for the History of Astronomy 10 (1979), 42-43.
  28. T Siegfried, 50 years later, it's hard to say who named black holes, Science News magazine (23 December 2013).
  29. S Soter and N deGrasse Tyson, Case Study: John Michell And Black Holes, Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, American Museum of Natural History (2000).
  30. K Subramanian, Before S Chandrasekhar won the Nobel in 1983 his theories were overlooked because of his race, Business Standard (20 October 2017).
  31. A Sundermier, Black Holes, Symmetry Magazine (1 December 2016).
  32. What Is a Black Hole? NASA Knows! (Grades 5-8), NASA (4 June 2014).