References for Chinese numerals


  1. G Ifrah, The universal history of numbers (London, 1998).
  2. J-C Martzloff, A history of Chinese mathematics (Berlin-Heidelberg, 1997).
  3. J-C Martzloff, Histoire des mathématiques chinoises (Paris, 1987).
  4. F C Scesney, The Chinese abacus (New York, 1944).


  1. D C Cheng, The use of computing rods in China, Archiv der Mathematik und Physic 32 (1925), 492-499.
  2. J Needham, Mathematics and the science of the heavens and the earth, in J Needham, Science and civilisation in China (Cambridge, 1959).