References for Étienne Louis Malus

  1. K M Pedersen, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    See THIS LINK.
  2. Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.


  3. E L Malus, L'agenda de Malus. Souvenirs de l'expédition d'Egypte, 1798-1801 (Paris, 1892).


  4. J B Biot, Etienne Louis Malus, Biographie universelle XXVI (Paris, 1820), 410-.
  5. J Z Buchwald, Experimental investigations of double refraction from Huygens to Malus, Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 21 (4) (1979/80), 311-373.
  6. E Frankel, The search for a corpuscular theory of double refraction : Malus, Laplace and the prize competition of 1808, Centaurus 18 (1973/74), 223-245.