Armenia became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1936 and the **Armenian Academy of Sciences** was founded on 10 November 1943 as a branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The founder and first president was Hovsep Orbeli, an orientalist who specialised in the medieval history of the Caucasus area. Orbeli served as president from 1943 to 1947 when he was succeeded by the theoretical astrophysicist Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian who held this position until 1993. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 after the break-up of the Soviet Union and in 1993 the Academy became the 'National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia'.

The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia has five divisions:

The Division of Physics and Astrophysics,

The Division of Natural Sciences,

The Division of Chemistry and Earth Sciences,

The Division of Armenology and Social Sciences.

The Division of Mathematical and Technical Sciences contains three Institutes and one Section:

**The Institute of Mathematics.**

Studies in contemporary mathematics in Armenia date back to 1944, when a Section for Mathematics and Mechanics was created within the newly born Armenian Academy of Sciences. The section later developed into the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Armenian Academy of Sciences whose first Director was Academician Artashes Shahinyan (1906-1978), a mathematician well known for his results in complex analysis. Shahinyan, the son of the physicist Aram Shahinyan, became a professor in 1944, a corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1945 and a full member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1947. The Institute of Mathematics of Armenian Academy of Sciences separated from the combined mathematics and mechanics Institute in 1971. In the early years the investigations carried out in the Institute concentrated on Function Theory. Gradually the sphere of investigations expanded and, as we indicate below, now includes Differential and Integral Equations, Functional Analysis, Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics.

This present Institute has the following main areas of interest:

**Complex Analysis:** The main areas of research are the theory of approximations by analytic and harmonic functions, best approximations; applications of uniform and tangential approximations in various fields of complex analysis; investigation of problems of Weierstrass theory of analytic functions; Banach algebras of analytic functions; uniqueness problems of analytic and harmonic functions; value distribution theory of analytic and meromorphic functions; boundary value theory and boundary behaviour of analytic, harmonic and subharmonic functions; integral transformations theory in complex domain; integral representations and classes of analytic and harmonic functions in multidimensional domains.

**Real Analysis:** The main areas of research are trigonometric and general orthogonal series; bases in functional spaces; weighted functional spaces; differentiation of multidimensional integrals; representation and uniqueness for multiple Haar, Franklin, Walsh and trigonometric series; nonlinear approximation.

**Probability Theory:** integral and stochastic geometry; combinatorial integral geometry; point processes; sections of convex bodies by random planes and lines; measures generation by finite additive functionals; mathematical problems of statistical physics; limit theorems for random Gibbs processes and fields; statistics of stationary Gaussian processes.

**Differential and Integral Equations:** The main areas of research are methods and algorithms for solution of equations; accelerating the convergence of decompositions by eigenfunctions of boundary problems and asymptotic estimates of the corresponding errors; computer realization of integral transforms and applications; parallelization of computations.

**Mathematical Physics:** The main areas of research are methods of study and effective numerical-analytical solution of integral, integral-differential and other equations, arising in direct and inverse problems of radiative transfer, kinetic theory of gases, renewal stochastic processes, semi-Markov processes, filtration of stochastic processes, non-local interaction of waves; development of method of nonlinear factorization equations, Ambartzumian equation method; fixed point principles in the critical case.

**Institute of Mechanics.**

This Institute, founded in 1971, has the following main areas of interest:

Mathematical theory of elasticity; Theory of anisotropic plates and shells; Theories of plasticity, creep and viscoelasticity: Magnetoelasticity; Contact and mixed boundary-value problems of deformable solids mechanics; Interaction of thin-shelled systems with different physical fields and media; waves propagation in continuous media; Composite materials and design optimization of constructions; Mechanics of soils, basis and foundations; Mechanics of seismic centre and seismic waves propagation in layered media; Mechanics of fluids and mixtures; Mechanics of robotic systems and optimal control.

**Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems.**

This Institute, founded in 1955, has the following main areas of interest:

Theoretical and applied investigations in the area of computer science and informational technologies; creation and propagation of artificial intellectual systems; automate theory and computer aided design; theory of algorithms and software automated synthesis; cognitive algorithms and models; pattern recognition systems and distributed processing; artificial intelligence and management support systems; mathematical logic and automated logical deduction; computational methods and digital image processing; data coding and transmission problems; information theory and applied statistics; discrete analysis and applied software technologies; distributed systems software; mathematical methods in linear algebra and linear programming; computer aided telephone communication.

**"Hydromechanics and Vibrotechnics Section of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia".**

This Section, founded in 1992, has the following main areas of interest:

Wave and vibration control in pipeline systems. Transient and stationary mode management in pipeline systems containing mono- and biphasic (fluid, gas) media with pressure fluctuation and flow stabilizers.

We also mention the Division of Physics and Astrophysics which contains an observatory and three Institutes. We give details of the Observatory:

**The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory.**

This observatory is located on the slopes of Mount Aragatz, near the village of Byurakan. It was founded in 1945 on the initiative of Victor Ambartsumian, who became its first director. Its main areas of research are: Detection and study of galaxies possessed by active nuclei and other forms of activity, study of extragalactic objects from the First and Second Byurakan spectral surveys, observational and theoretical studies of systems of galaxies, including the compact and wide groups of galaxies, analysis of the influence of activity processes on the objects' evolution. Studies of star formation regions, including the non-stable young objects of our Galaxy, detection and studies of stellar associations and their typical population - non-stable and flare stars, H-alpha emission stars, young stars possessing of various types of activity, including the anisotropic optical jets, detection and studies of nebula, detection and exploration of blue stellar objects and late type stars from Byurakan spectral surveys. Mathematical modelling of actual problems of astrophysics, interpretation of spectra of cosmic objects, theory of radiation transfer in stochastically inhomogeneous media, problems of the observational cosmology, including the formation of cosmic objects belonging to various hierarchical levels and their evolution. Astronomical instrument-making, including the design and building of telescopes and astronomical towers and domes.

**Publications of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia.**

We list the journals published by the Academy which are relevant to the topics of our MacTutor Archive.

1. *Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia. Mathematics*.

2. *Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia. Mechanics*.

Published since 1966.

3. *Mathematical Problems of Computer Science*.

Published since 1963.

4. *Armenian Journal of Mathematics*.

Published since 2008.

5. *Astrophysics*.

Published since 1965.

**List of References**(6 books/articles)

**Other Web site**Academy Web-site