Macedonian Academy of Sciences

The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts

The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts was established on 22 February 1967. Although Macedonia has in some sense existed over a long period of time, the area which is now named Macedonia has been controlled by various countries and peoples over the centuries. It was controlled by Bulgaria for long periods of time, while at the beginning of the 20th century it was controlled by Serbia and named South Serbia. It became part of Yugoslavia when that country was formed in 1929. The name Democratic Federal Macedonia was declared in 1944 but two years later, as the People's Republic of Macedonia, it became part of the Yugoslav Federation in 1946. It changed its name again, this time to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1963 and, after the break-up of the Soviet Union, it became an independent country named the Republic of Macedonia in 1991. Since June 2018 it has been agreed that the country will be called Northern Macedonia to distinguish it from the Macedonian region of Greece. The area that is now Macedonia along with its aims to be an independent country over a long period of history, mean that we shall refer to "Macedonia" throughout this article.

The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts built on literary and scientific developments in Macedonia over a long period of time and, to put the founding of the Academy into context, we give some details of this earlier scholarly work following [6].

The early scholarship in Macedonia was largely concerned with linguistics, literature, historiography, and ethnology studies. For example the Ohrid Literary School was founded in Ohrid (now in Macedonia) in 886 by Saint Clement of Ohrid. At the same time the Preslav Literary School was founded by Saint Naum. These schools [6]:-

... prepared the soil for prolific literary, scholarly, educational and artistic activities in Macedonia. This area saw the birth of the first Slavic alphabet which then spread throughout the entire Slavic world. It was the home of the civilisation of the Macedonian Slavs with its high aesthetic values in literature, the visual arts, music and architecture.
Many of the societies which were forerunners of the Macedonian Academy were not based in the region now called Macedonia. For example, the Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society was established in St Petersburg on 28 October 1902. This Society, sometimes called the Slavic-Macedonian Scholarly and Literary Society [6]:-
... expanded, establishing branches among the Macedonian expatriates in Sofia (1903) and Odessa (1905), as well as in Bitola and Thessaloniki (1910-13). As part of its numerous scholarly and literary activities and with a clearly defined Macedonian national agenda, the society proclaimed the Macedonian language as its official language in Article 12 of the Constitution adopted on 16 December 1903. It published the first book in the modern Macedonian literary language (Za makedonckite raboti - On Macedonian Matters) in 1903 and in 1905 it published Vardar, the first scholarly, scientific and literary journal in contemporary Macedonian, while in 1913 it produced the first Map of Macedonia. In addition it published historical records and other official documents with a clear Macedonian national ideology and a liberation programme for the preservation of the territorial integrity and freedom of Macedonia (1913-15), as well as the most renowned journal in Macedonian and Russian Makedonskij Golos (Macedonian Voice) (1913-14). It designed a Macedonian flag (1914) and prepared and published the Programme for a Democratic and Federative Balkan Republic (1917).
The period between the 1914-18 and 1939-45 wars saw major developments on Macedonian literature, Macedonian music, and the sciences, particularly technical sciences, medicine, agriculture and economics. The first higher education institution was founded in Skopje in 1943 during a period when the Axis powers had put this region under Bulgarian control. This institution was called the Boris III University after the Tsar of Bulgaria. The university closed down in the autumn of 1944 when the Bulgarian forces withdrew and, after Macedonia became the People's Republic of Macedonia, part of the Yugoslav Federation in 1946, it was decided to open a Macedonian university to replace the Bulgarian one. The Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje opened with a philosophy faculty on 29 November 1946. The Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences was part of this first faculty. It was academics at this university who played the major role in setting up the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts in 1967.

The Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia adopted the Law of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts on 23 February 1967 and set up a committee of six people to initiate the work of the Academy. These were the Rector of the University of Skopje and five others who were members of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, and/or the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts. The first election of members took place on 18 August 1967 in the National Museum of Ohrid. Fourteen full members were elected at this time, one being the mathematician Blagoj Popov. The first meeting of the new Academy took place in Skopje on 9 October 1967 when the President, Vice President and Secretary were elected [3]:-

The solemn opening ceremony of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts was on 10 October 1967 in the Great Hall of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. At the opening ceremony, in addition to the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts members and the delegations of the fraternal academies from the other republics, attended many representatives of the public, scientific and cultural life of the Republic. The Solemn Assembly was opened by the President of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts Academician Blaže Koneski, and was greeted by: Mito Hadži Vasilev, President of the Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia; Academician Grga Novak, President of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts; Academician Velibor Grigorić, President of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts; Academician Josip Vidmar, President of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts; and Academician Vaso Butozan, President of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts was admitted as a member of the Council of the Academies of Sciences and Arts of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 10 October 1967. The Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia approved the statutes of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts which were adopted on 8 March 1968.

The present Academy is described in [5]:-

The Academy has been established as the highest scientific and artistic institution in our Country which monitors and stimulates the development of sciences and arts and endeavours their advancement. The Academy surveys the situation with the cultural heritage and natural resources, collaborates in the preparation of the national policy regarding the sciences and arts, stimulates, coordinates, organizes and conducts scientific research and artistic achievements, especially those particularly relevant to the Republic of Macedonia. The Academy facilitates scientific and artistic work on the part of its members, it encourages the use of the most advanced methodology, scientific knowledge and results in the scientific research, and establishes, maintains and develops international cooperation in the fields of the sciences and arts. As the highest independent scientific and artistic institution the Academy achieves its objectives by organizing basic, developmental and applied research, especially with comprehensive and inter-disciplinary research; by organizing scientific meetings and artistic presentations and by publishing the results of the scientific research and scientific meetings and the artistic works. The Academy collaborates with the universities, scientific and cultural institutions, with scientific and artistic societies and other organizations in the field of sciences and arts in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as with academies of sciences and arts and other scientific and artistic institutions abroad.
At present the Academy has six departments and all its activities take place in these. They are: (i) the Department of Linguistics and Literary Science; (ii) the Department of Social Sciences; (iii) the Department of Medical Sciences; (iv) the Department of Technical Sciences; (v) the Department of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnological Sciences; and (vi) the Department of Arts. The work of these Departments is described in [2]:-
Departments review the situation in the relevant scientific, scholarly and artistic fields, and give opinions on and make proposals for the furtherance and the application of contemporary scientific knowledge and the results of scientific research. They discuss proposals for the publication of the artistic achievements and scientific research of members and other works submitted to the Academy for publication. They also decide which articles are to be included in the departmental publications and nominate articles for publication in other journals issued by the Academy. The departments initiate and evaluate the various scientific and scholarly projects undertaken by the Academy. They put forward proposals for the organisation of scholarly and scientific conferences and symposia, art exhibitions and other cultural events, confirm the programmes, of work, propose candidates for full, corresponding, honorary and foreign membership of the Academy and decide on the nominations for full membership made by institutions of higher education as well as by other scientific and artistic institutes and organisations.
Of particular interest to this Archive is the Department of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnological Sciences which deals with the following scientific areas: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Forestry, Biotechnology, Geography, Mineralogy, Geology, Agricultural Science, and other technical sciences. At present the Department has six members, one of which is the mathematician Dončo Dimovski.

List of References (6 books/articles)

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