# Arthur Lyon Bowley

### Quick Info

Bristol, England

Fernhurst, Surrey, England

**Arthur Bowley**was a leading statistician with an international reputation for his work on poverty. His expertise in mathematics meant that he played an important part in developing the mathematical basis of economics. He was a prolific author publishing many influential books.

### Biography

**Arthur L Bowley**was the son of James William Lyon Bowley (1826-1871) and Maria Johnson (1832-1915). James Bowley, born in Southwark, Surrey on 11 December 1826, [31]:-

... first took employment in a smith's shop, then as a clerk in a drapery and in 1846, after much private study, was appointed as assistant master at a Totteridge school. He clearly had great reserves of energy and self-discipline (qualities his son inherited) for once installed in his teaching position he furthered his quest for greater learning by early morning study of the classics. Study of the classics was the first step towards ordination; he obtained a grant and received his Master's degree from Durham University in June 1854.On 15 July 1856, James married Ann Elizabeth Jackson (1826-1861), to whom he had been engaged for eight years, at St Philip, Dalston; they had three children James Lyon Bowley (born 1857), Mary Elizabeth Bowley (born 1858) and Florence Ann Bowley (born 1859). James became a curate in Lambeth and, at the 1861 census, he was living at 5 Lansdown Terrace with his wife, son and two daughters. He gives is occupation as Chaplain at the Royal Naval School; he gave up the curacy after a disagreement with the vicar. His wife Ann died at Lambeth in the autumn of 1861. James married Maria Johnson in the Parish Church in Tooting on 17 December 1863. By this time James was living in Isleworth, being chaplain of the Naval College there but soon after his marriage the family moved to Bristol when James was appointed as vicar of St Philip and St Jacob. James and Maria Bowley had four children, all born in Bristol, Robert Lyon Bowley (born 1864), Ellen Maria Bowley (born 1866), Francis Bulmer Lyon Bowley (born 1868) and Arthur Lyon Bowley (born 1869), the subject of this biography.

James Bowley died on 1 January 1871 when Arthur was one year old. At the 1871 Census, Maria Bowley is living at 26 Kingsdown Parade with her stepson James Lyon Bowley and her four children. They have two servants, a nurse and a general domestic [31]:-

The family position would have been very difficult but for a sum of £2100 collected by the Mayor and local Bristol businessmen which was invested in breweries, ironworks and railway wagon works and produced an annual income of about £200. Maria was evidently an excellent household manageress for the children were well-fed, well-clothed and the household never in debt.We have treated Arthur Bowley's background in some detail, particularly since it influenced his career being a factor in his research into poverty.

In 1879 James Bowley began his education at Christ's Hospital School in Newgate Street London. This school, one of the oldest boarding schools in England, was founded in 1552 to provide:-

... food, clothing, lodging and learning for fatherless children and other poor men's children. The children were not only cared for but prepared for future careers.The school provided a strict religious education having the children clothed in traditional costume living in spartan conditions. This school was another strong influence on Bowley's character, giving him a life-long interest in social problems. He was an outstanding pupil [2]:-

In 1886 he won the Tyson Gold Medal for mathematics and two years later, in his last year at school, he gained the Montefiore Prize for mathematics and classics, and also the Thompson Gold Medal for mathematics.He was admitted as a pensioner to Trinity College, University of Cambridge, on 20 December 1887 and, having won a major scholarship to study the mathematical tripos, he matriculated at the start of the Michaelmas term, at the beginning of October 1888. His mathematics master at Christ's Hospital had predicted that Bowley would be Senior Wrangler in the mathematical tripos but poor health ended any chance of this achievement. The professors and tutors were so concerned about his poor health that they collected money to fund a trip to Egypt where they hoped the warm weather would aid his recovery. When he returned, however, he was still not well enough to continue his studies and he went to Bournemouth for a lengthy stay. Despite this major disruption to his studies, he still managed to be ranked 10th Wrangler in the mathematical tripos examinations in 1891, being awarded his BA in that year.

From October 1891 to March 1892 Bowley studied natural sciences in the Cavendish Laboratory and, at the same time, studied economics advised by Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) who was Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge and had just published his influential text

*Principles of Economics*(1890). Marshall suggested that Bowley submit an essay for the 1892 Cobden Essay Prize. He submitted

*An Account of England's Foreign Trade in the Nineteenth Century*which won the prize and became Bowley's first publication in 1893.

For an extract from the Introduction of

*A Short Account of England's Foreign Trade in the Nineteenth Century*(1893), see THIS LINK.

In 1894 he won the Adam Smith Prize with a paper on changes in average wages. He delivered the Newmarch Lectures in 1894 and these formed the basis for his next publication

*Wages in the United Kingdom in the Nineteenth Century: Notes for the Use of Students of Social and Economic Questions*(1900). For extracts from some reviews of this book, and many of Bowley's other books, see THIS LINK.

Let us say a little about the Newmarch Lectures. Following the death of William Newmarch (1820-1882), the "Newmarch Lectures on Economic Science illustrated by Statistics" were set up with a memorial fund at University College London. The professor of economics could either give the lecture course, which was open to the public, or appoint a lecturer. The first external lecturer was Francis Edgeworth in 1891, and Bowley was appointed as Newmarch Lecturer for 1894. Let us note that he was again invited to give the Newmarch Lectures in 1927 when he gave six lectures "Tests and Trustworthiness of Public Statistics" and in 1928 when he gave six lectures on "Statistics."

The last decade of the 1800s were highly successful years for Bowley but ones during which he was also teaching mathematics. From 1892 to 1899 he taught mathematics first at Brighton College, then from 1893 at St John's School in Leatherhead. One of the addresses he gave while on the staff was on poverty and income distribution, a topic that he would continually return to throughout his career. The text of this talk was never published but it still exists as a handwritten manuscript. While at Leatherhead, he was appointed at a Lecturer in Statistics at the London School of Economics in 1895. He gave his first lecture in October of that year, the month when the College opened. He would continue to teach at the London School of Economics until he retired in 1936. Bowley's final mathematics school teaching appointment was at Clifton College in Bristol before he was appointed as a Lecturer in Mathematics at University College, Reading in 1900.

At the London School of Economics, Bowley was promoted to Reader in 1908 and, in 1915, he became a professor. He was a Lecturer in Mathematics at University College, Reading until 1907 when he was promoted to the Chair of Mathematics and Economics. Louis Mordell's reminiscences contain the amusing note:-

About 1912, I applied for a post at University College, Reading. The salary at such small places was 120 pounds per annum. At larger places, e.g., University College and Kings College, London, the salary was 150 pounds. Three of us were interviewed, and Professor Bowley, a statistician who was head of the department, appointed a Scotch football player. It is the irony of fate that many years afterwards, I was on the selection Committee of the Royal Society when he was a Candidate. I did not hold his choice against him.Bowley retained this Chair for six years but resigned in 1913 when he was appointed to the Chair of Statistics at the University of London. He retained a position at University College, Reading, however, being a Lecturer in Economics from 1913 to 1919.

Bowley married Julia Hilliam (1871-1959) in St George's Church, Reading on 26 March 1904. Julia, the daughter of Thomas Hilliam (1823-1901) and Catherine Hetley Roberts (1833-1916), had been born in Spalding, Lincolnshire on 15 October 1871. Bowley had met Julia, a talented woodcarver, when both were teaching at University College, Reading [33]:-

She was unwilling to give up a promising career for marriage but Bowley argued: "We will labour truly for the commonweal ... I propose no unequal match where you should be merged in my work, though I hope you will inspire it. But where we should both be cultivating such talents as we may have, and cheering and helping each other. I at least, certainly need this support."Arthur and Julia Bowley had three children: Ruth Hilliam Bowley (1907-2000), Agatha Hilliam Bowley (1909-1995) and Marian Ellen Alberta Bowley (1911-2002).

A description of Bowley as a teacher is given in [2]:-

The immense quantity of his published work is indicated [we list 29 books and he wrote around 80 papers]. All this was done while he was lecturing regularly to generations of students and giving detailed care to the work of post-graduate research workers. As a teacher it must be recognised that he was at his best with post-graduate students and with others undertaking advanced studies. With the undergraduate, groping his way in an endeavour to achieve a statistical frame of mind, Bowley assumed an ability to follow an argument that was not always justified. Whether the student should have taken this as a compliment is an open question, but certain it is that the pre-degree student often stumbled and even sometimes fell. There was perhaps a tendency for Bowley's lectures to develop on occasion into a confidential monologue addressed to the blackboard, as he chalked up line after line of formulae. The fact that intermediate steps were often omitted as being unnecessary did not help. Thus it was that those students who took statistics as a subordinate or voluntary subject were apt to become impatient; but those who were taking statistics as their main subject came sooner or later to realise that the necessity of helping themselves was itself a very real element in the education that Bowley provided and by them he soon became acknowledged as the very great man he was. The research worker found himself in a different position. In order to do research under Bowley, one needed already to be mentally prepared to reap the advantage of Bowley's mind. To such he was an invaluable guide and many men distinguished in public life, such as the late Lord Stamp and Lord Beveridge, have acknowledged their indebtedness to him.The range and quantity of Bowley's work means that it would be difficult here to give a good indication of it. A C Darnell writes [31]:-

[Bowley was] an economic statistician of the highest rank. ... there was nothing he did that was without practical, or at least a potential practical, application. ... all his work is concerned with the common theme of social enquiry with the goal of change for the better.Masashi Kondo [70] writes:-

According to Darnell, Bowley made three novel contributions to economics. First, Bowley was a 'collector and compiler of economic statistics particularly on wages and national income', a field that Marshall argued was crucial. Second, he was a pioneer of statistical techniques in the social sciences, in the development of mathematical economics and econometric. Darnell placed high value on this particular field even though it was underestimated by Blaug. Third, he was 'a pioneer of sampling techniques'.Let us quote from [61] concerning one important part of his work:-

The 1912-13 survey was a result of his close involvement in the development of statistical methods for the purpose of social investigation. Bowley was familiar with the work being done at the Board of Trade. His first major contribution to the statistics of social investigation had been in the field of index numbers. This is the Bowley who in co-operation with G H Wood was between 1898 and 1906 constructing the index of the movement of real wages on which economic historians have relied for so long. However, in the years immediately prior to his poverty surveys he was turning his professional attention to the mathematics of probability. ... Bowley's training made him someone very different and much rarer [than others], namely a person concerned with the application of academic mathematical studies to social statistics. He was not himself a creative mathematician; his originality lay in recognising how matters familiar to mathematicians could be used in social investigation, a field in which high-powered mathematicians were usually not interested. The fruits of his concern with the mathematics of probability were first expounded in 1906 at the meeting of the British Association, which by a stroke of irony was being held that year in York. He dealt with the technique of random sampling and the consequent calculation of standard deviations. ... At the heart of Bowley's practical innovation lay his wish to use the mathematics of probability to estimate the degree of error to be found in statistics. The beauty of the method of random sampling was that error had been deliberately built into the statistics in a controlled way, and could therefore be estimated.The reader who would like to get a deeper knowledge of Bowley's contributions, will find a wealth of information in the extracts from reviews of his books which we give at THIS LINK.

Bowley received many honours and awards for his outstanding contributions. He was awarded an honorary DSc by the University of Cambridge in 1913, and an honorary DLitt by the University of Oxford in 1943. In 1922, he was elected a fellow of the British Academy. He was awarded a CBE in 1937 and knighted in 1950. He served on the council of the Royal Economic Society. The Royal Statistical Society awarded him the Guy Medal in Silver in 1895 and the Guy Medal in Gold in 1935; he served as president of the Royal Statistical Society 1938-40. In 1903 he became a member of the International Statistical Society, and in 1933 helped to found the International Econometric Society, also serving as its president from 1938-39.

Although Bowley retired in 1936, when World War II broke out in 1939 he became director of the Oxford Institute of Statistics and devoted himself to war related research. He was an advisor to Sir William Beveridge in 1941 when he wrote his

*Report on Social Insurance and Allied Services*. He retired for the second, and final, time in 1944 and the age of 75.

Let us end by quoting from [2] concerning Bowley's personality:-

In personality, Bowley was somewhat shy and-retiring. He did not readily make close friends and his intimate friendship with Edwin Cannan over many years was an almost unique experience. Few of his students achieved the very rewarding privilege of his intimacy but those who did realised their exceptional good fortune. Bowley was the very soul of discretion and only in his last few years would he occasionally reveal to close friends the inner history of this or that event which at the time was a matter of wide speculation.

It was with Cannan in particular that he indulged his addiction to the bicycle. "Cannan and I used our bicycles as more modern people use cars". As early as 1895 when living at Leatherhead and lecturing at the London School of Economics "I used to bicycle from and to Leatherhead on the Wednesday half holiday to lecture at 5.0 (or was it 6.0?) p.m." The following extract from a letter dated September 12th, 1906 to Cannan shows Bowley in a typical frame of mind, " ..., That's all I can say. I don't think the theory of any importance; all that counts is already in Marshall. The following problem is however of finite importance, I wish to go to Wirksworth (a few miles north of Derby) on September 30th and return on October 2nd. In both cases, I want from 70 to 90 miles cycling on moderately secluded roads and a complementary express railway journey, e.g., Reading to Leicester and Derby to Wirksworth by road and Leicester to Derby by train. What is my route?" F Y Edgeworth, who not infrequently joined Bowley and Cannan on their cycling trips, was prone to discuss mathematical questions as the trio rode along, and Cannan is reported to have said on one such occasion "Bowley, let us go a little faster, Edgeworth cannot talk mathematics at more than eight miles an hour."

To know Bowley in his home was to know how much his family life meant to him. With his wife and daughters he shared great happiness and the gracious atmosphere of his home left a deep impression on all who knew it. It was a rare delight to see Bowley seated at his piano as he played Bach or Haydn with a real personal pleasure. In the last year or two of his life he took up weaving (at which Lady Bowley had long been expert) and for this purpose a skein of yarn had to be cut into a number of pieces of similar length. Even then he brought his professional interests to bear as he discussed with a visitor the significance of the standard deviation of a large number of lengths which ought to have been but were not identical.

There are several of Bowley's pre-1914 students now retired who continue to acknowledge their debt to him, and in this they are joined by his later students and colleagues. He was held in high esteem by all who knew him - and indeed by those who knew him best with a deep affection. It was in recognition of his authority as a statistician and social investigator together with his greatness as a man that a large congregation, including many distinguished figures, attended on February 11th, 1957 at St Martin-in-the-Fields the Memorial Service arranged jointly by the London School of Economics and the Royal Statistical Society.

### References (show)

- E Abbott, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*Social Service Review***1**(1) (1927), 149-151. - R D G Allen and R F George, Obituary of Professor Sir Arthur Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A***102**(1957), 236-241. - R D G Allen, Bowley, Sir Arthur Lyon,
*Oxford Dictionary of National Biography*(Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004). - R D G Allen, Arthur Lyon Bowley, 1869-1957,
*Revue de l'Institut International de Statistique***25**(1-3) (1957), 181-182. - Anon, Review: A Short Account of England's Foreign Trade in the Nineteenth Century. Revised Edition, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of Political Economy***14**(5) (1906), 331-332. - Anon, Review: An Elementary Manual of Statistics (Second Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994)***50**(1) (1916), 70-71. - Anon, Review: A General Course of Pure Mathematics from Indices to Solid Analytical Geometry, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Mathematical Gazette***7**(108) (1913), 214-215. - Anon, Review: A General Course of Pure Mathematics from Indices to Solid Analytical Geometry, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Mathematics Teacher***6**(3) (1914), 182. - Anon, Review: Livelihood and Poverty: a study in the economic conditions of working-class households, by Arthur L Bowley and A R Bennett-Hurst,
*The Irish Monthly***46**(539) (1918), 300-301. - Anon, Review:
*Charity Organisation Review, New Series***37**(222) (1915), 317-318. - Anon, Review:
*The British Medical Journal***1**(2940) (1917), 582. - Anon, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*Journal of the Royal Society of Arts***75**(3868) (1927), 223-224. - F B, Review: Elements of Statistics (Fifth Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*Economica***18**(1926), 373-374. - W B Bailey, Review: An Elementary Manual of Statistics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Bulletin***3**(4) (1910), 422-423. - E M Bernstein, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Southern Economic Journal***5**(4) (1939), 548. - W Bowden, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The American Historical Review***44**(3) (1939), 620-621. - Bowley, Arthur Lyon, in
*N L Johnson and S Kotz (eds.), Leading Personalities in Statistical Sciences from the Seventeenth Century to the Present*(Wiley, New York, 1997), 277-279. - Bowley, Arthur Lyon. 6th November 1869 to 21st January 1957,
*The Rowntree Business Lectures and the Interwar British Management Movement, University of Exeter*.

http://rowntree.exeter.ac.uk/items/show/24 - E Brabrook, Review: Livelihood and Poverty: a study in the economic conditions of working-class households, by Arthur L Bowley and A R Bennett-Hurst,
*Charity Organisation Review, New Series***38**(225) (1915), 309-312. - E Brabrook, Review: The Division of the Product of Industry: an Analysis of National Income before the War, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Charity Organisation Review, New Series***45**(270) (1919), 163-164. - F Brown, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic History Review***9**(2) (1939), 215-217. - C J Bullock, Review: Wages in the United Kingdom in the Nineteenth Century: Notes for the Use of Students of Social and Economic Questions, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of Political Economy***8**(4) (1900), 540-543. - G G C, Review: The Effect of the War on the External Trade of the United Kingdom, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***78**(4) (1915), 614-616. - E Cannan, Review: The Division of the Product of Industry: an Analysis of National Income before the War, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***29**(114) (1919), 207-213. - E Cannan, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*Economica***17**(1926), 221-222. - R D Carmichael, Review: A General Course of Pure Mathematics from Indices to Solid Analytical Geometry, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc.***21**(1) (1914), 39-40. - R E Chaddock, Review:
*Political Science Quarterly***31**(2) (1916), 334-335. - W L Crum, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Quarterly Journal of Economics***39**(2) (1925), 313-319. - C M D, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Transactions of the Faculty of Actuaries***10**(98) (1924-1925), 369-371. - A I Dale, Arthur Lyon Bowley, in
*C C Heyde, E Seneta, P Crépel, S E Fienberg and J Gani (eds.), Statisticians of the Centuries*(Springer, New York, NY - A C Darnell, A L Bowley, 1969-1957, in
*D P O'Brien and J R Presley (eds.), Pioneers of Modern Economics in Britain*(Macmillan, London, 1981), 140-174. - A C Darnell, Bowley, Arthur Lyon, in
*D Rutherford (ed.), Biographical Dictionary of British Economists*(Thoemmes Press, Bristol, 2004). - S Donnelly, Arthur Bowley - LSE's first statistician,
*London School of Economics*.

https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/lsehistory/2015/11/04/arthur-bowley-lses-first-statistician/ - P H Douglas, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*The American Economic Review***16**(4) (1926), 730-731. - W P E, Review: Elements of Statistics (Fourth Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994)***52**(3) (1921), 389-392. - W P E, Review:
*Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994)***54**(3) (1923), 298-299. - W P E, Review: An Elementary Manual of Statistics (Fourth Edition) (revised and enlarged), by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994)***59**(3) (1928), 424-425. - W P E, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994)***56**(1) (1925), 107-110. - W P E, Review:
*Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994)***59**(3) (1928), 422-423. - F Y E, Review: The Change in the Distribution of the National Income, 1880-1913, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***83**(3) (1920), 482-484. - F Y Edgeworth, Review: Statistical Studies relating to National Progress in Wealth and Trade since 1882: A plea for further inquiry, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***14**(54) (1904), 268-271. - F Y Edgeworth, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***34**(135) (1924), 430-434. - A W F, Review: An Elementary Manual of Statistics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***73**(4) (1910), 435-437. - A W F, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***87**(4) (1924), 619-621. - J A F, Review: An Elementary Manual of Statistics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of Political Economy***18**(7) (1910), 563-564. - R P Falkner, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Political Science Quarterly***16**(1) (1901), 163-165. - J A Field, Review:
*Journal of Political Economy***24**(4) (1916), 408-409. - J A Field, Review:
*Journal of Political Economy***24**(4) (1916), 408-409. - A W Flux, Review: The National Income 1924, by Arthur L Bowley and Josiah Stamp,
*The Economic Journal***37**(146) (1927), 255-257. - A W Flux, Review: An Elementary Manual of Statistics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***20**(78) (1910), 268-271. - W C Ford, Review: Elements of Statistics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of Political Economy***9**(3) (1901), 443-450. - H S Furniss, Review:
*The Economic Journal***25**(99) (1915), 430-431. - M G, Review:
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***78**(4) (1915), 616-617. - G I Gavett, Review: Elements of Statistics (Fifth Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***22**(160) (1927), 523-527. - M Gilbert, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***38**(224) (1943), 473-475. - J H, Review: Elements of Statistics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994)***36**(2) (1901), 197-200. - A B H, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***89**(2) (1926), 350-352. - F H H, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Journal of Social Forces***3**(1) (1924), 185. - F H Hankins, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*Social Forces***5**(3) (1927), 527-528. - H V H, Review: Some Economic Consequences of the Great War, by Arthur L Bowley,
*International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1931-1939)***10**(1) (1931), 122. - E P Hennock, The Measurement of Urban Poverty: From the Metropolis to the Nation, 1880-1920,
*The Economic History Review***40**(2) (1987), 208-227. - A Hewes, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***21**(155) (1926), 367-369. - C K Hobson, Review: The Effect of the War on the External Trade of the United Kingdom, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journa*l**25**(100) (1915), 585-586. - M H Ingraham, Review:
*The American Economic Review***19**(4) (1929), 738-739. - D C Jones, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***48**(190) (1938), 291-294. - M G K, Review: Elements of Statistics (Sixth Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***101**(2) (1938), 458-459. - W I King, Review: The Division of the Product of Industry: an Analysis of National Income before the War, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The American Economic Review***9**(3) (1919), 617-620. - W I King, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*American Sociological Review***8**(5) (1943), 612-613. - W I King, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The American Economic Review***28**(3) (1938), 605-607. - M Kondo, A Study of the Methodology of Arthur Lyon Bowley,
*Business School, University of Western Australia*.

https://www.business.uwa.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/2325301/Masashi-Kondo.pdf - H M Krämer, Bowley's Law: The diffusion of an empirical supposition into economic theory,
*Cahiers d'économie politique***61**(2011), 19-49. - S Kuznets, Review:
*The Review of Economics and Statistics***26**(2) (1944), 99-100. - S Kuznets, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***33**(202) (1938), 456-458. - H W M, Review: The National Income 1924, by Arthur L Bowley and Josiah Stamp,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***90**(2) (1927), 376-378. - H W M, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***101**(2) (1938), 461-463. - J Marschak, Review: Family Expenditure: A Study of its Variation, by R G D Allen and Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***46**(183) (1936), 485-489. - W F Maunder, Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley (1869-1957), in
*E S Pearson and M G Kendall (eds.), Studies in the History of Statistics Probability*(Griffin, London, 1970). - L Meriam, Review: Official Statistics: What they contain and how to use them, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association***17**(136) (1921), 1040-1041. - B D Mudgett, Review: Elements of Statistics (Fourth Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science***100**(1922), 210-211. - E M N, Review: Elements of Statistics (Fifth Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***90**(2) (1927), 372-373. - A C Pigou, Review: Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Economica, New Series***5**(18) (1938), 230-233. - E Porritt, Review: Livelihood and Poverty: a study in the economic conditions of working-class households, by Arthur L Bowley and A R Bennett-Hurst,
*Political Science Quarterly***30**(3) (1915), 518-520. - E J R, Review: The Effect of the War on the External Trade of the United Kingdom, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review***4**(15) (1915), 508-509. - J F Rees, Review: Prices and Wages in the United Kingdom, 1914-1920, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Scottish Historical Review***19**(76) (1922), 313-315. - B S Rowntree, Review: Livelihood and Poverty: a study in the economic conditions of working-class households, by Arthur L Bowley and A R Bennett-Hurst,
*The Economic Journal***25**(99) (1915), 427-430. - B S Rowntree, Review: Has Poverty Diminished? (1925), by Arthur L Bowley and M Hogg,
*The Economic Journal***36**(142) (1926), 228-233. - E C S, Review: Prices and Wages in the United Kingdom, 1914-1920, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***85**(1) (1922), 119-121. - W F S, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Mathematical Gazette***12**(174) (1925), 292. - Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley,
*Department of Mathematics, University of York*.

https://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/bowley_biog.htm - Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley,
*Department of Mathematics, University of York*.

https://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/bowley_biog.htm - Sir Arthur L Bowley, 1869-1957,
*The History of Economic Thought*.

https://www.hetwebsite.net/het/profiles/bowley.htm - H Schultz, Review: Family Expenditure: A Study of its Variation, by R G D Allen and Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***31**(195) (1936), 613-617. - H Schultz, Review: Family Expenditure: A Study of its Variation, by R G D Allen and Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***31**(195) (1936), 613-617. - M Tappan, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Economica***15**(1925), 334-338. - G Tintner, Review: Family Expenditure: A Study of its Variation, by R G D Allen and Arthur L Bowley,
*Economica, New Series***3**(11) (1936), 345-346. - J Venn and J A Venn (eds.), Bowley, Arthur Lyon, in
*Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of All Known Students, Graduates and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge, from the Earliest Times to 1900*Volume**2**: From 1752 to 1900. Part 1: Abbey-Challis (Cambridge University Press, 2011). - A D W, Review: Livelihood and Poverty: a study in the economic conditions of working-class households, by Arthur L Bowley and A R Bennett-Hurst,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***78**(3) (1915), 455-456. - G P Watkins, Review: The National Income 1924, by Arthur L Bowley and Josiah Stamp,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***22**(159) (1927), 404-405. - A D Webb, Review: Prices and Wages in the United Kingdom, 1914-1920, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***31**(124) (1921), 498-501. - F M Williams, Review: Family Expenditure: A Study of its Variation, by R G D Allen and Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***31**(195) (1936), 610-613. - G H Wood, Review: Wages in the United Kingdom in the Nineteenth Century: Notes for the Use of Students of Social and Economic Questions, by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***10**(37) (1900), 73-75. - A A Young, Review: An Elementary Manual of Statistics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Publications of the American Statistical Association***12**(92) (1910), 385-386. - A A Young, Review: The Mathematical Groundwork of Economics, by Arthur L Bowley,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***20**(149) (1925), 133-135. - G U Yule, Review: Elements of Statistics (Fourth Edition), by Arthur L Bowley,
*The Economic Journal***31**(122) (1921), 220-224. - A Z, Review:
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***88**(2) (1925), 281.

### Additional Resources (show)

Other pages about Arthur Bowley:

Other websites about Arthur Bowley:

### Honours (show)

Honours awarded to Arthur Bowley

### Cross-references (show)

Written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson

Last Update June 2021

Last Update June 2021