Jonathan Michael Borwein

Quick Info

20 May 1951
St Andrews, Fife, Scotland
2 August 2016
London, Ontario, Canada

Jonathan Borwein was a Scottish born mathematician who spent most of his career in Canada and Australia. Famed for his work on analysis, experimental mathematics and the visualisation of mathematics, he is perhaps best known for his research and publications on π.


Jonathan Borwein (known as Jon) was the son of David Borwein and Bessie Flax. David Borwein had been born in Lithuania but was brought up and educated to B.Sc. level in South Africa. He married Bessie, who was studying Botany and Zoology at the University of Witwatersrand, on 30 June 1946 in Yeoville, Johannesburg. They emigrated to Britain in 1948 and David was awarded a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of London in 1950. In the same year he was appointed as a lecturer in mathematics at the University of St Andrews in Scotland. In St Andrews the Borwein family lived at Alvie, Buchanan Gardens (1950-1953), West View Cottage, Lade Braes Lane (1954-1958), and then 4 Abbotsford Place (1959). They had a house built at 10 Strathkinness High Road (West Acres) and moved into the house in 1960. David and Bessie's three children were all born in St Andrews: Jonathan Michael Borwein, the subject of this biography, was born on 20 May 1951; Peter Benjamin Borwein, also an exceptionally talented mathematician, was born on 10 May 1953; and Sarah Tanya Borwein, who became a medical doctor, was born in 1961.

Jonathan and Peter had a happy childhood. Peter Borwein said [26]:-
I have fond memories of growing up with Jon, as young boys in St Andrews, Scotland. An early memory of Jon is of us fishing off the pier in St Andrews with our dad David. We would catch rock cod, and make my mother Bessie clean them and make fish cakes. This delighted Jon. He and I also spent much of our childhood with our guinea pigs, Gilbert and Gulliver. My dad built a cage for them with no bottom, so that the guinea pigs would move around the lawn, acting as lawnmowers. As young boys we also shared a bedroom in St Andrews. I used to keep Jon awake at night, by reminding him that the universe was infinite. This bothered him to no end. It's no surprise that he ended up as a mathematician.
When Jon was six years old, his father bet his St Andrews colleagues that he could teach Jon to solve two-by-two simultaneous linear equations by making it into a game. Although not understanding the meaning or significance of this game, nevertheless Jon loved it and taught his best friend to play it.

Jon attended Madras College, the main state school in St Andrews, entering the junior school in 1956. He excelled at this school and in September 1962 he was chosen as one of the four pupils to represent the school on the Top of the Form quiz. This was the first year that the popular quiz for secondary schools moved from being a radio programme to become a television programme. The youngest member of the team of four had to be under 13 and 11 year old Jon filled that spot.

In 1963 David Borwein became a professor at the University of Western Ontario and Jon moved with his family to London, Ontario, Canada. Jon continued his schooling in London, Ontario and graduated from High School in 1967 at the age of sixteen. Later that same year he enrolled at the University of Western Ontario and had a remarkably successful career being awarded a Timkins International Fund Scholarship in 1968, an Albert O Jeffrey Scholarship in 1969, and a University of Western Ontario Faculty Association Scholarship in 1971. If the reader assumes that with a mathematician for a father, Jon always wanted to be a mathematician, then they would be wrong. In fact he started university intending to become a historian, but changed to mathematics in his second year. We might also assume that studying mathematics at the University of Western Ontario, where his father was a mathematics professor, would mean that Jon would attend classes taught by his father. This did not happen, however, since his father made sure Jon did not take his courses. Jon did remember some of his lecturers being less than perfect [25]:-
From my days as an undergraduate in the late sixties I recall Peter Fraser, a mathematical physicist at Western Ontario, whose flawless lectures persuaded my second year mechanics class that no effort was required on their part, until a failing grade on the final proved otherwise, and my to be-nameless third year number theory teacher, a non-researcher whose stolid indifference to scholarship could not destroy a for-me magical subject.
In 1970, while at the University of Western Ontario, Jon met Judith D S Roots. They married in Oxford, England in 1973 and had three daughters: Rachel Laura Borwein (born 28 March 1976), who was awarded a Ph.D. in Veterinary Medicine; Naomi Simone Borwein, who was awarded a Ph.D. in English literature and became a poet and writer; and Tova Rebekah Borwein (born 5 December 1991), who became an Operations Analyst at Screenrights in Sydney, Australia.

In 1971 Jon Borwein was awarded a B.A. with Honours in Mathematics and received the Kingston Gold Medal for Honours Mathematics. He was awarded an Ontario Rhodes Scholarship to study at Jesus College, University of Oxford, England [6]:-
Jon won a 1971 Rhodes Scholarship and settled into life at Oxford. His classes allowed him to rub shoulders with the likes of Michael Atiyah, Professor of Geometry, who actually attended a class on mathematical Linguistics with Jon. Atiyah often sat unheeding and would then ask the professor dumb basic questions about the lecture. At a much later time at a conference Atiyah laughed and said that Jon had certainly gotten more from the class than he did.
At Oxford, Borwein was advised by Michael Alan Howarth Dempster (born 1938). Dempster, born in Ontario, Canada with a first degree from the University of Toronto, was, at the time he supervised Borwein's postgraduate studies, writing the book Introduction to Optimization Methods which was an introduction to non-linear methods of optimisation. Borwein was awarded an M.Sc. in 1968 having submitted the thesis Monotone Operators and Non-Linear Functional Analysis. He was awarded a D.Phil. in 1974 for his thesis Optimization with Respect to Partial Orderings. The Abstract to the thesis begins:
The thesis is primarily concerned with optimisation problems which have objective functions which do not take values on the real line.
After the award of his doctorate, Borwein returned to Canada where he was appointed as a Post Doctoral Fellow at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. At Dalhousie, he joined a strong functional analysis group. After one year he was promoted to Lecturer and Research Associate in 1975, then to Assistant Professor in the following year.

On 28 March 1976 Jon and Judi's daughter Rachel Laura Borwein was born and in July of that year Jon, Judi and their daughter Rachel, together with Jon's sister Sarah (aged 15) and his parents David Borwein and Bessie Borwein all attended the St Andrews Colloquium in St Andrews, Scotland. I [EFR] was also at the Colloquium and David Borwein, who had taught me analysis, introduced me to Jon Borwein. Jon had been particularly keen to attend, not only to revisit the town in which he spent the first twelve years of his life, but also to attend Heini Halberstam's course on Number Theory.

Borwein's first four papers were all published in 1976. These are: Fractional programming without differentiability; A note on Fritz John sufficiency; (with R O'Brien) Tangent cones and convexity; and (with M Edelstein and R O'Brien) Visibility and starshape. In the first of these he gives the acknowledgement:-
Acknowledgements are due to Drs C Field and W R S Sutherland with whom I have discussed this subject and especially to Dr M A H Dempster, my former supervisor, who introduced me to convex analysis.
Christopher A Field and William R S Sutherland, mentioned in this quote, were colleagues of Borwein's at Dalhousie University. His two co-authors are Richard C O'Brien and Michael Edelstein who were on the faculty of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, and Dalhousie University, respectively. Borwein describes Edelstein as [25]:-
... a Polish-Israeli functional analyst who by example and engagement converted a generation of young analysts into full-blooded independent researchers.
Borwein continued to be promoted at Dalhousie University, becoming an Associate Professor with Tenure in 1980. He was then given leave of absence and spent the following two years at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Richard Brent writes [28]:-
His early work included papers on operations research, semi-definite programming, and integer programming. After moving to Carnegie-Mellon University in 1980, he added variational analysis.
Jon Borwein's brother, Peter Borwein, was also an exceptionally gifted mathematician and the brothers became colleagues at Dalhousie University in 1980 when Peter Borwein was appointed there as an assistant professor. Their first joint paper was A very rapidly convergent product expansion for π which was published in 1983. This was the first of 35 papers on which the brothers were co-authors and these soon led to Jon Borwein being known to his friends and students as 'Doctor π'. Peter Borwein explains what it was like working with his brother [26]:-
He had a remarkable clock speed, a term he liked to use for how fast people worked. He could accomplish in a day or two what took other people weeks, which is one of the reasons he was so prolific. ... I would like to comment on how we worked together, which was intensive. And I also want to comment on the fact that many people thought we ought to compete, that there ought to be sibling rivalry. In fact there really was no rivalry. He was a very generous co-author. Not always an easy co-author (he could be very demanding), but he was always generous with ideas, and with acknowledgment, and with giving credit, not just to me, but to his graduate students, and colleagues - whom he could drive very hard, but if they could keep up with him the pay-off was rewarding. He was obviously very smart. But what doesn't show necessarily is that he had a phenomenal memory. When he worked on a problem intensely he would store the facts and not have to look them up.
For other comments about Jon Borwein's character, see the extracts from tributes at THIS LINK.

Let us continue to record Borwein's career. In 1984 he was made a full professor at Dalhousie University continuing in this role until 1993. During the last two years of that period, 1991-93 he was on leave from Dalhousie University to allow him to spend the years as professor in Department of Combinatorics and Optimization at Waterloo University in Ontario, Canada.

Yasumasa Kanada (1949-2020) was a computer scientist working at the Computer Centre, University of Tokyo, Japan. He was, like Borwein, interested in calculating π to many decimal places, for example in 1983 he published the paper Calculation of π to 4,194,293 Decimals Based on the Gauss-Legendre Algorithm. Borwein met Kanada in 1985 [16]:-
In 1985 while on sabbatical, Jon went to Cambridge, England and then Limoges, France. While in Cambridge Jon received a redirected Christmas card from Yasumasa Kanada, a professor in the Department of Information Science at the University of Tokyo in Tokyo, Japan. He looked at the return address and was astonished to see that Kanada was in Cambridge as well. There was a meeting and this led to fruitful discussions about computer modelling algorithms and π. This friendship lasted until Kanada's retirement in 2015. When asked why a computer scientist would come to such a place as Cambridge, Kanada replied that he was looking to imbibe the theoretical underpinnings and classical view of his work. This was something he could not get at home.
Both Jon Borwein and Peter Borwein made deep contributions to the study of π and they co-authored the outstanding book Pi and the AGM: A Study in Analytic Number Theory and Computational Complexity (1987). For information about this book, including extracts from several reviews, see THIS LINK.

As well as working with his brother Peter, Jon Borwein worked with his father David Borwein. They co-authored 33 papers starting with Convergence of lattice sums and Madelung's constant in 1985. Since Jon Borwein wrote over 30 papers with his brother and over 30 papers with his father, one might expect several papers jointly authored by all three Borweins. In fact there is only one paper with Jon, Peter and David all as authors, namely Giuga's conjecture on primality (1996) in The American Mathematical Monthly.

Jon and Peter Borwein had shown themselves to be amazing expositors with their first book Pi and the AGM. For example, Peter Cass had written in the review [31]:-
This exciting and well-written book is the product of the sound scholarship and enormous enthusiasm of its authors.
The two, with the third author David Bailey, wrote the paper Ramanujan, modular equations and pi or how to compute a billion digits of pi which was published in the American Mathematical Monthly in 1989. This paper won the three authors two major prizes: the Chauvenet Prize of the Mathematical Association of America 1993 for the:-
... outstanding survey or expository mathematics paper published in a North American Journal ...
and the Merten M Hasse Prize from the Mathematical Association of America, also in 1993, for a:-
... noteworthy expository paper in an Association Journal one of whose authors is younger than forty ...
In 1987 Adrian Lewis became Borwein's postdoctoral student. He writes [42]:-
Early in 1987 Jon had welcomed me to the delightful city of Halifax, Nova Scotia - then his home. During a two-year postdoctoral fellowship, I shadowed him closely on his travels. Astonishingly, among his many projects then was a 'Dictionary of Mathematics', and indeed I felt a kind of prosaic Boswell to his dizzying Samuel Johnson.
Jon and his family - his wife, Judi, and two young daughters, Rachel and Naomi (their sister Tova being yet to arrive) - more or less adopted me as a family member when I arrived in Canada. I essentially lived with them during month-long visits to Limoges, France (where Jon later received an honorary doctorate), to the Technion in Israel, and to Canberra and Newcastle, Australia. The sheer fun of that last visit probably inspired the Borweins' later choice of adopted home.

Life at the Borweins' home was an inspiring and exhausting blur. A typical evening involved prodigious and virtuoso culinary feats from Judi, feisty debates from Rachel and Naomi, and multiple simultaneous media playing at full volume. At a minimum, these included political news (Jon was intensely active, politically, serving for a while as treasurer of the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party), major league baseball (another domain of erudition), and music. All gradually dissolved into large glasses of Scotch (Jon's Scotchness, like Healey Willan's, was mostly "by absorption"), and then a call to arms from Jon to prove some reluctant theorem. The exuberant and dizzying environment mirrored Jon's mathematics, a style so appealing it quickly sealed my own career choice as a mathematician.
Borwein had always been interested in experimental mathematics. He defined 'experimental mathematics' in the blog Will computers replace humans in mathematics? which he wrote on 1 June 2016:-
So what exactly is experimental mathematics? It is best defined as a mode of research that employs computers as a "laboratory," in the same sense that a physicist, chemist, biologist or engineer performs an experiment to, for example, gain insight and intuition, test and falsify conjecture, and confirm results proved by conventional means.
For a longer extract from this blog, and other writings by Borwein, see THIS LINK.

In 1993 Borwein moved to Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada where he was appointed Gordon M Shrum Professor of Science in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics. At Simon Fraser University he founded the Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics [51]:-
Jon's purpose in this endeavour was for Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics to be become a centre of excellence that would attract world-class scholars interested in the interaction between mathematics and computer applications.
The Simon Fraser University Mathematics and Statistics Newsletter of June 1995 reported on one of the achievements of the Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics [49]:-
A team of mathematicians from Simon Fraser University, working with a colleague in Japan, has calculated the value of pi to a new world record of almost 4,294,967,286 decimal places. A printout of the number, expressed at six digits per centimetre, would stretch more than 7,000 kilometres. The new world record was achieved using computer formulae, or algorithms, developed by the brothers Jonathan and Peter Borwein, of Simon Fraser University's Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics. The Borweins worked with Dr Yasumasa Kanada of the University of Tokyo's computing centre. The calculation was completed on a HITACS-3900/480 vector supercomputer and took 56 hours. The results have since been verified.
Borwein worked on producing two volumes on experimental mathematics. The first, co-authored with David Bailey, was Mathematics by Experiment: Plausible Reasoning in the 21st Century (2004), while the second, co-authored with David Bailey and Ronald Girgensohn, was Experimentation in Mathematics: Computational Paths to Discovery (2004). You can read extracts from the prefaces and extracts from reviews of these two books and of other books by Borwein on experimental mathematics at THIS LINK.

In 1994 Borwein was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. This was the first of many honours given to Borwein. The British Columbia Confederation of University Faculty Associations made both Jon and Peter Borwein 'Academics of the Year' in 1996. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Limoges in 1999, elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2001, and elected a foreign member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2003.

In 2004 Borwein returned to Dalhousie University when he was appointed as Research Professor in the Faculty of Computer Science and held the Canada Research Chair in Collaborative Technology. In 2009 Borwein moved to Australia when he was appointed Laureate Professor in the School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences at the University of Newcastle, New South Wales. He was also appointed as director of the research centre for Computer Assisted Research Mathematics and its Applications (CARMA). In March 2010 he was elected to the Australian Academy of Science. Two conferences were organised to celebrate his 60th birthday in 2011, one in Canada and the other in Australia. The first was in May 2011 at the Interdisciplinary Research in the Mathematical and Computational Sciences Centre at Simon Fraser University, while the second was in November 2011 at the centre for Computer Assisted Research Mathematics and its Applications at the University of Newcastle, New South Wales. In 2015 he was elected a Fellow of the American Mathematical Society:-
For contributions to non-smooth analysis and classical analysis as well as experimental mathematics and visualisation of mathematics.
His work in Australia was recognised with the Distinguished Service Award in 2017, a year after his untimely death [5]:-
Jon's deep international leadership experience, coupled with his great generosity of spirit, was of extraordinary value to the mathematical sciences in Australia and to Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute (AMSI) in particular. Even prior to his arrival here Jon contributed to the establishment of the AMSI Access Grid Room network. He continued to be a champion of this initiative once he arrived in Australia and CARMA at Newcastle provided us with deep technical advice as well as academic engagement.

During his leadership of the Scientific Advisory Committee he encouraged wider access, especially by younger research leaders, to AMSI's workshop program and oversaw the successful program collaboration with the Australian Mathematical Society. His energetic and always thoughtful engagement with the Board, the AMSI Members and the committees was outstanding.

Jon was an intense driver of collaboration and was himself an inveterate speaker and collaborator, always encouraging his hosts to make use of AMSI's support. He had a natural affinity with AMSI's collaborative model and his strategic view of the world made his contribution singular and his loss acute. This medal is therefore awarded with the deepest respect.
In 2016 Borwein returned to Canada to spend a few months as Distinguished Scholar in Residence at Western University in London, Ontario. He died suddenly when nearing the end of that visit. A conference was held in his honour in Newcastle, Australia, in September 2017. Many of Borwein's colleagues and collaborators presented papers at the conference and the proceeding was published in 2020 under the title From Analysis to Visualization: A Celebration of the Life and Legacy of Jonathan M Borwein.

References (show)

  1. G E Andrews, Review: Pi and the AGM - A Study of Analytic Number Theory and Computational Complexity, by Jonathan M Borwein and Peter B Borwein, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 22 (1) (1990), 198-201.
  2. F Aragón, Adiós a Jonathan Borwein, el Doctor π, El País (7 September 2016).
  3. F Aragón, Farewell to Jonathan Borwein, Doctor Pi, Jonathan Borwein Memorial Website (7 September 2016).
  4. R Askey, Review: Pi and the AGM - A Study of Analytic Number Theory and Computational Complexity, by Jonathan M Borwein and Peter B Borwein, The American Mathematical Monthly 95 (9) (1988), 895-897.
  5. D H Bailey, Jonathan Borwein dies at 65, Math Scholar (23 March 2017)
  6. D H Bailey, "From Analysis to Visualization: A Celebration of the Life and Legacy of Jonathan M Borwein", Math Scholar (28 March 2020).
  7. D H Bailey, Bailey, Borwein, Mattingly and Wightwick to receive the Levi L Conant Prize from AMS, Math Scholar (23 March 2017).
  8. D H Bailey, Jonathan Borwein: renaissance mathematician, Amer. Math. Monthly 128 (9) (2021), 773-779.
  9. D H Bailey, Jonathan Borwein: experimental mathematician, Exp. Math. 26 (2) (2017), 125-129.
  10. D H Bailey, Report on the Jon Borwein remembrance day meeting in Paris, Jonathan Borwein Memorial Website (15 February 2017).
  11. D H Bailey, Jonathan M Borwein's extraordinary mathematical career, Canadian Mathematical Society Notes 48 (6) (2016), 14-15.
  12. D H Bailey and J Borwein, Why Mathematics Is Beautiful and Why It Matters, HuffPost (6 December 2017).
  13. D H Bailey and J Borwein, Moore's Law and the future of science and mathematics, Math Drudge (2 January 2012).
  14. D H Bailey and J Borwein, Exploratory Experimentation and Computation, Notices Amer. Math. Soc. 58 (10) (2011), 1410-1419.
  15. D H Bailey, J M Borwein, P B Borwein and S Plouffe, The Quest for Pi, NAS Technical Report NAS-96-015, NASA Ames Research Center (June 1996).
  16. D H Bailey, J Borwein, N S Borwein and R P Brent, Jonathan Borwein: Mathematician Extraordinaire, in D H Bailey, N S Borwein, R P Brent, R S Burachik, J-A H Osborn, B Sims and Q J Zhu (eds.), From Analysis to Visualisation (Springer, 2017), 1-10.
  17. D H Bailey and S Chapman, Introduction to the special issue [Special issue in memory of Jonathan Borwein], Amer. Math. Monthly 128 (9) (2021), 772.
  18. H H Bauschke, B S Mordukhovich, C S Sagastizábal and M A Théra, Preface [A tribute to Jonathan Borwein (Part 2)], Set-Valued Var. Anal. 26 (2) (2018), 205-206.
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  21. J M Borwein, The Future of Mathematics: 1965 to 2065, in S F Kennedy, D J Albers, G L Alexanderson, D Dumbaugh, F A Farris, D B Haunsperger and P Zorn (eds.), A Century of Advancing Mathematics (MAA Press, 2015), 313-330.
  22. J M Borwein, A Short Walk can be Beautiful, Journal of Humanistic Mathematics 6 (1) (2016), 86-109.
  23. J M Borwein, P B Borwein and D H Bailey, Ramanujan, Modular Equations, and Approximations to Pi or How to Compute One Billion Digits of Pi, The American Mathematical Monthly 96 (3) (1989), 201-219.
  24. N S Borwein and J-A H Osborn, On the Educational Legacies of Jonathan M Borwein, in D H Bailey, N S Borwein, R P Brent, R S Burachik, J-A H Osborn, B Sims and Q J Zhu (eds.), From Analysis to Visualisation (Springer, 2017), 103-131.
  25. J M Borwein, Jonathan M Borwein on David Borwein, in Alex C Michalos (ed.), The best teacher I ever had (University of Western Ontario, 2003), 55-57.
  26. P Borwein, My brother Jon, Jonathan Borwein Memorial Website (27 August 2016).
  27. S Borwein, My brother Jon, Jonathan Borwein Memorial Website (27 August 2016).
  28. R P Brent, Jonathan Michael Borwein 1951-2016: Life and Legacy, Papers with Code (13 July 2021).
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  30. R Burachik, A Khan, C Tammer and D Ward, Preface [Special issue: variational analysis and nonsmooth optimization - dedicated to the memory of Professor Jonathan Michael Borwein], Optimization 68 (7) (2019), 1261-1263.
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  32. S T Chapman, A letter from the editor: Jonathan M Borwein (1951-2016), Amer. Math. Monthly 123 (9) (2016), 847-848.
  33. H Cohn, Borwein, Jonathan Michael (1951 - 2016), Encyclopedia of Australian Science and Innovation (3 July 2018).
  34. Delving into the unknown, University of Newcastle, Australia.
  35. Distinguished Service Award - Jonathan M Borwein, Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute (2017).
  36. G Hoare, Review: Mathematics by Experiment. Plausible Reasoning in the 21st Century, by Jonathan M Borwein and David H Bailey, The Mathematical Gazette 89 (514) (2005), 143-144.
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  38. Jonathan Borwein: Curriculum Vitae, Computer Assisted Research Mathematics and its Applications, University of Newcastle, Australia (1 August 2016).
  39. Jonathan Borwein: Profile, The Conversation.
  40. Jonathan Borwein: Articles, The Conversation.
  41. U Kortenkamp, J Monaghan and L Trouche, Jonathan M Borwein (1951-2016): exploring, experiencing and experimenting in mathematics - an inspiring journey in mathematics, Educational Studies in Mathematics 93 (2016), 131-136.
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  43. S B Lindstrom, The Art of Modern Homo Habilis Mathematicus, or: What Would Jon Borwein Do?, in B Srisaman (ed.), Handbook of the Mathematics of the Arts and Sciences (Springer, 2021), 7-43.
  44. N Lord, Review: A dictionary of real numbers, by Jonathan Borwein and Peter Borwein, The Mathematical Gazette 74 (470) (1990), 395.
  45. N Lord, Review: Experimental Mathematics in Action, by D H Bailey, J M Borwein, N J Calkin, R Girgensohn, D R Luke and V H Moll, The Mathematical Gazette 93 (528) ( 2009), 564-566.
  46. T R Marchant and G A Willis, Editorial. Professor Jonathan M Borwein, J. Aust. Math. Soc. 101 (2016), 289.
  47. A C Robin, Review: Pi: A source book (3rd edn.), by Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein and Peter Borwein, The Mathematical Gazette 90 (518) (2006), 375-376.
  48. M Rose, A mathematical family man, Jonathan Borwein Memorial Website (30 October 2016).
  49. SF News, A piece of pi: SFU mathematicians set two world records for calculating pi, SFU Mathematics and Statistics Newsletter (June 1995).
  50. The Life of Dr π, University of Newcastle, Australia.
  51. M Théra, Jonathan M Borwein (1951-2016) homo sapiens, homo ludens (French), Matapli (111) (2016), 43-47.
  52. M Théra, Introduction for the Paris Jon Borwein Memorial Conference, Jonathan Borwein Memorial Website (13 February 2017).
  53. Vale Laureate Professor Jonathan Borwein, University of Newcastle, Australia (3 August 2016).
  54. J Wimp, Review: Pi and the AGM - A Study of Analytic Number Theory and Computational Complexity, by Jonathan M Borwein and Peter B Borwein, SIAM Review 30 (3) (1988), 530-533.
  55. D Zeilberger, Jonathan Borwein (1951-2016) a PiONEER of Experimental Mathematics (Videtaped Lecture), Rutgers University (15 September 2016).
  56. D Zeilberger, Review: Mathematics by Experiments, by J Borwein and D Bailey; and Experimentation in Mathematicsm by J Borwein, D Bailey and R Girgensohn, Rutgers University (12 November 2004).

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Written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
Last Update September 2023