Bento de Jesus Caraça
Vila Viçosa, Portugal
BiographyBento Caraça was the son of Joao António Caraça and Domingas da Conceiçao Espadinha who were agricultural workers. The family lived on Rua dos Fidalgos in Vila Viçosa where the Casa de Bragança housed some of its servants and it was there that Bento was born. He had three siblings, António, Francisco and Filomena. His parents feared that their child might not survive so his mother took him to the priest to be baptised before they had chosen a name for him. The priest suggested "Bento de Jesus", meaning "blessing from Jesus" and that became his name. When he was two months old, the family moved to Herdade da Casa Branca, in the village of Montoito, where his parents were employed by the owner Raul Albuquerque to oversee the estate: his father was responsible for managing the agricultural part while his mother was in charge of the domestic part. Bento spent the first five years of his life at Herdade da Casa Branca.
José Percheiro was a seasonal worker who knew how to read and write. He was given seasonal work on the Casa Branca estate and Bento quickly saw that Percheiro was different from the other workers. Percheiro taught Bento to read and write and was amazed at how quickly the child, by then about five years old, learnt to read the book he carried with him. Soon Percheiro moved on to work elsewhere but he left Bento the book Cartilha Maternal ou Arte de Leitura Ⓣ by Joao de Deus. Before he left, Percheiro spoke to Bento's mother, explaining to her what a clever child she had and saying that he should attend school. Joao dos Santos Caraça, the son of Francisco Caraça and so a nephew of Bento, was told about Bento's childhood by his parents and grandparents. He explained :-
Little Bento de Jesus Caraça spent hours clinging to the book, constantly rereading it, to the point of memorising it.It would have been almost impossible for Bento's parents to send him to school but Jerónima Albuquerque, the wife of the owner of the estate, was so impressed with the child's enthusiasm for learning that she offered to fund his studies. She took him to her house in Vila Viçosa to live there while attending the local primary school. Joao dos Santos Caraça explains how lucky Bento was in being able to attend primary school :-
... my father, Francisco José Caraça, who, being three years older than his brother Bento, never attended primary school, but learned to read and write while working as a help to guard the flock of sheep, or the herd of pigs, on the so-called Casa Branca homestead.Bento completed his primary schooling at the Vila Viçosa primary school in 1911 and then enrolled in the Sá da Bandeira High School, in Santarém. The cost of his studies there continued to be covered by Jerónima Albuquerque. After two years at this school, he went to Lisbon in 1913 to continue his studies at the Liceu Normal Pedro Nunes. This school, founded in 1906, had moved into new buildings on Avenida Álvares Cabral, in front of the Jardim da Estrela, in 1911, two years before Caraça began studying there. He spent five years at this school, graduating with distinction in 1918 and then enrolled in the Instituto Superior do Comércio :-
In 1919, Bento Caraça contracted rheumatic disease, which caused irreversible heart damage, but the illness did not affect his academic success, and the renowned mathematician Mira Fernandes, who recognised his talent, invited him to become 2nd assistant. So, at eighteen, Caraça began his dazzling university career. On 1 November 1919, he was appointed 2nd assistant in the 1st group of chairs at the Instituto Superior do Comércio (Higher Mathematics - Higher Algebra, Principles of Infinitesimal Analysis, Analytical Geometry).Throughout his student years, Caraça offered private tutoring to help fund his studies. In 1922, while still an undergraduate, he taught a course on Commerce and Finance at the Universidade Popular Portuguesa. This institution had been founded in January 1919 with the aim of contributing to the education of the people of Portugal, especially those of working class. Caraça was a member of its Administrative Council from the time it was founded. The authors of  write:-
The year 1919 effectively marks the beginning of Bento de Jesus Caraça's brilliant teaching career, not only as a Mathematics teacher, but also as a great disseminator of scientific modernities to the working masses. This engagement in social issues is explained by his active participation in the foundation of the Universidade Popular Portuguesa, an entity linked to the communist party that played an important role in Portuguese culture in the first half of the 20th century and which Bento de Jesus came to be become president from 1928.Let us note at this point that in 1921 the Portuguese Communist Party was founded. Caraça would later join this party in his fight against Fascism. Caraça graduated with distinction from the Instituto Superior do Comércio in 1923 with a licentiate in Economics and Financial Sciences. He was appointed as a temporary assistant at the Instituto Superior do Comércio on 13 December 1924, and taught courses on Infinitesimal Analysis, and on the Calculus of Probabilities and its Applications. In the following year he taught courses on Higher Algebra, Principles of Infinitesimal Analysis, and Analytical Geometry.
In December 1926 Caraça married Maria Octávia Sena, daughter of mathematics teacher Adolfo Bernardino de Sena Marques e Cunha (1872-1927) who taught at the Liceu Pedro Nunes in Lisbon. They had met when Caraça was a pupil at the Liceu Pedro Nunes and was taught by Adolfo Sena. Sadly the marriage lasted only nine months since Maria Octavia died on 18 September of the following year.
In December 1927, Caraça was promoted to extraordinary professor of Higher Mathematics and two years later, on 28 December 1929, to full professor of Higher Mathematics at the Instituto Superior do Comércio. Between these two dates he had been elected as president of the Administrative Council of the Universidade Popular Portuguesa. He continued to hold his chair at the Instituto Superior do Comércio but also taught at the Universidade Popular Portuguesa, giving the introductory mathematics course of 53 lectures in 1931. A A da Costa write in :-
He was my mathematics teacher. It is well known that young students in general have a horror of mathematics, just like they do today. But Professor Bento de Jesus Caraça knew how to teach students to love mathematics, to understand its importance as an instrument for a quick understanding and intervention in life's problems. He taught mathematics starting with the things most attractive to students. Things that told them something. He was a great teacher.He published several books and numerous articles on mathematics, including books based on his lecture courses Interpolation and Numerical Integration (1930-32), Lessons in Algebra and Analysis, in 2 volumes (1935-1940), and Vector Calculus in 2 volumes (1937). Of particular interest is his multi-volume Fundamentais da Matemática Ⓣ which was first published in 1941, then all its volumes in 1951 and again by Guida Lami in as part of the collection of Caraça's writings . Lami writes in :-
The 'Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics' was published in this collection, expressing Caraça's belief that mathematics can be enjoyed by all, provided it is presented in a convenient way. He always explained science in such a way as to highlight it as a great chapter in human and social life. In particular, mathematics, having its own specificity, does not lack foundations that are embedded, like all science, in real life.The political events in Europe played a very significant role in Caraça's life. He had seen the Fascists rise to power in Italy in 1925, the 28 May 1926 coup d'état in Portugal which installed a military dictatorship, and the victory of the Nazis in the elections in Germany in 1930. Caraça was personally involved in reactions to the 1926 coup d'état, since there were academic strikes at the Instituto Superior de Comércio and at other educational institutions. In February 1927 there was a military rebellion against the Military Dictatorship which began in Porto and spread to Lisbon. Around 150 people were killed during this failed rebellion. As early as 1929, Caraça announced his fight against the "capitalist system", writing and affirming in public :-
The great difference of this book in relation to all others that have been written for mathematical dissemination is that it has as its essential idea that life is the basis for the embedding of all things, and that therefore mathematics, like all human construction, depends on the set of social conditions where it is engendered and where it develops.
With the aim of achieving human contact between author and reader, Caraça adopted three strategies that intersect or overlap throughout the work:
- He writes the book in the form of a dialogue between author and reader, in which the first questions the second, as if it were a conversation;
- He speaks of mathematical concepts contextualising them in philosophical currents and in the historical events that contributed to their definition;
- He presents the evolution of mathematical concepts in a logical and coherent way.
I believe that the proletarian class is destined, in a more or less near future, to take the direction of the destinies of the world into their own hands, completely transforming the entire existing social organisation.António de Oliveira Salazar became finance minister some time after the 1926 coup d'état and in 1932 became prime minister of Portugal. He exercised vast political powers, using censorship and the secret police against any opposition, particularly socialist and communist opposition. Caraça had shown his strong reaction to political events with his close association with the Universidade Popular Portuguesa from 1919. The Universidade Popular de Setúbal had been founded in Setúbal in 1924 as part of the same movement that opened the Universidade Popular Portuguesa in Lisbon. On 22 March 1931, Caraça delivered the lecture The Popular Universities and Culture at the Universidade Popular de Setúbal. This was the first of a series of lectures he delivered setting out his socio-political theories. On 25 May 1933 Caraça delivered the lecture A Cultura Integral do Indivíduo Ⓣ at the União Cultural Mocidade Livre. This was part of the organisation set up by Francesco Lyon de Castro to support his newspaper, the Mocidade Livre Ⓣ, which aimed to provide a democratic front of young workers and students. Let us quote a little from this lecture, now considered by many to be his most important, that established the clear outlines of his thought-
What is the cultured man? He is the one that:Caraça was now becoming increasingly active politically, strongly influenced by the rise of Fascism in both Italy and Germany. In August 1934 he was a founder of the 'League against War and against Fascism' and elected its first leader. He was the representative of the League in the Portuguese Popular Front in December 1935 but in fact he had been the main driving force behind the establishment of the Portuguese Popular Front in August 1934. The Popular Front argued for bread, peace, freedom and culture. It argued for popular democracy and a cooperative economy.
1st - is aware of his position in the cosmos and, in particular, in the society to which he belongs;
2nd - is aware of his personality and the dignity that is inherent to existence as a human being;
3rd - makes the improvement of his inner being the utmost concern and the ultimate aim of life.
Being cultured does not imply being wise; there are sages who are not learned men and learned men who are not wise; but what being cultured implies is a certain degree of knowledge, precisely that which provides a minimum basis for satisfying the three conditions set out. The acquisition of culture means a constant elevation, served by a flowering of the best in man and by an ever-increasing development of all his potential qualities, considered from the fourfold physical, intellectual, moral and artistic point of view; it means, in a word, the achievement of freedom. And to reach that high peak, accessible to every man, as a man, and not just to a class or group, there is no sacrifice that is not worth making, there is no weariness that must be avoided. The purity that you breathe at the top compensates well for the fatigue of the slope. An indispensable condition for man to be able to tread the path of culture - that he be economically independent. Consequence - the economic problem is, of all social problems, the one that has to be solved first. Everything that is undertaken without the prior, radical and serious resolution of this problem, will not pass either a naive attempt, with vague philanthropic ink, destined to lose itself in impotence, or a handful of dust, thrown in the eyes of the unwary.
Caraça was active in the formation of political organisations but he was also keen to support his own subject of mathematics so, along with other professors from the Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon and from the Higher Technical Institute, he was a founder of 'The Centre for Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry' in 1936. From the start the Centre ran into difficulties since the University of Lisbon, the Higher Technical Institute and other institutions refused to give permission for their rooms to be used. This shows how afraid institutions were of the totalitarian regime that then dominated Portugal which opposed all cultural activity they did not control. The Centre did not escape a smear campaign in which it was accused of holding subversive political meetings under cover of scientific sessions. Despite its problems, the Centre's public activities began on 16 November 1936 with a course in Vector Calculus, delivered by Caraça. It was this course that Caraça published as the book we mentioned above. Members of the Centre seem to have had certain disagreements during 1937 and 1939 which came to a head when a second course by Caraça was announced in November 1939, requested by certain members without the knowledge of others. The Centre disbanded later that month.
In 1938 Caraça was one of three founders of the 'Centre for Studies in Mathematics Applied to Economics'. He was elected as director of this Centre, a position he held until 1946. He gave the lecture "Rabindranath Tagore" at the Universidade Popular Portuguesa on 22 January 1939. In , José Paz Rodrigues discusses this lecture and the affinity that Caraça felt for the Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore who had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. When Caraça quotes Tagore's statement:-
... everything that exists vibrates with life, because it came out of life ...We see clearly how Caraça found his views very similar to those of Tagore. Tagore was not the only one of Caraça's heroes that he delivered a lecture on, others included 'Galileo Galilei, the scientific and moral value of his work' (in 1933), and 'Leonardo da Vinci' (in 1943).
and his way of teaching at the school he founded:-
... giving our boys as wide a horizon as possible, like universal human interests. This must come spontaneously, not simply through reading books, but through relationships with the whole wide world ...
Continuing his support of mathematics, he was one of the founders of the journal Gazeta de Matemática in January 1940. It was a publication of the Portuguese Mathematical Society and, in 1942 he took charge of the "Pedagogy" section of the Gazeta. Also in 1940, Caraça created and led the Pedagogical Commission of the Portuguese Mathematical Society and he was elected president of the Society for the session 1943-44.
In 1941 he created the Cosmos Library, for publishing scientific and cultural books, which went on to publish 114 volumes. It was his firm belief that knowledge should not be the privilege of a few, but had to be made widely available to everyone, that motivated this venture. The first volume was the first part of his book Fundamentais da Matemática Ⓣ. He continued to direct the Cosmos Library until his death.
On 25 August 1943 Caraça married Cândida Ribeiro Gaspar who had been one of his students. Daughter of Maria Palmira Ribeiro and Manuel Gaspar, she was born on 4 October 1917, in Ramalhal, close to Torres Vedras, and died on 5 March 2003, aged 85 years. She, like her husband, was very active in fighting for democracy. They had one son, Joao Manuel Gaspar Caraça, who was born on 22 August 1945. Joao Caraça obtained a degree in electrical engineering from the Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon, then a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from the University of Oxford for his thesis Electromagnetic properties of light proton-rich nuclei. He has had an outstanding career.
In years following his creation of the Cosmos Library, Bento Caraça increased his involvement in political and mathematical organisations. He became involved in the Democratic Unity Movement which was created in October 1945 and around the same time gave an interview for the newspaper República in which he claimed, among other things, that education was in a worse state in Portugal than it had been in 1926. Publication of an open letter by Caraça in the República led to a reply in the newspaper by Salazar. Caraça continued to challenge the government. When Portugal applied to join the United Nations, Caraça was one of the signatories on a document produced by the Democratic Unity Movement calling for Portugal to be refused entry until democracy was restored in the country. Portugal was refused entry to the UN in September 1946 and disciplinary proceedings were instituted against Caraça by the Minister of Education for "serious defamation of members of the Government". He replied to the disciplinary proceedings describing it "as violence practiced against me, against the letter and spirit of the Constitution."
On 10 October 1946 he was expelled from his chair and was prohibited from teaching, even giving private tutoring. Three days later he was arrested and held for five days. After his release he gave the lecture "Aspects of the Portuguese Cultural Problem" in November and was promptly arrested again. After a short time he was released but continued to argue for his beliefs. In February 1947 he signed a petition demanding the closure of the Tarrafal Concentration Camp. This camp on the island of Santiago in Cape Verde had been set up in 1936 to hold political opponents of Salazar's authoritarian government. In October 1947 he wrote a manifesto "The position of the Democratic Unity Movement at the present political moment". He was arrested for a third time in January 1948 and was put under house arrest. Despite this, he remained politically active until his death in June of that year. He was buried in the Cemitério dos Prazeres.
Caraça received honours many years after his death. On 1 June 1979 he was awarded the Grand Cross of the 'Ancient, Most Noble and Enlightened Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, of the Scientific, Literary and Artistic Merit'. In 1980 he was awarded the Grand Officer Order of Liberty for "services to the cause of democracy and freedom, in the defence of the values of civilisation and human dignity." This order was created in 1976 after the fall of the Salazar regime. Another honour was the issue of a postage stamp for Caraça by Portugal in 2001. See THIS LINK.
We should note that there has been much interest in Caraça and his ideas in recent years. The long list of references show this interest, but we should note that the list is far from complete and there are many other articles that we have not referenced.
- P Almeida, Bento de Jesus Caraça e o ideal da Universidade Popular, in L Schmidt and J De Pina-Cabral (eds.), Ciência e cidadania: homenagem a Bento de Jesus Caraça (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 2008), 49-58.
- A S Aubyn, Aspectos do ensino de Análise e Álgebra por Bento de Jesus Caraça, Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Matemática, Suplemento do Boletim da SPM 65 (October 2011), 15-16.
- C Bastien (ed.), Bento Jesus Caraça, Inéditos de Economia Matemática, Temas de Matemática 10 (Gradiva, 2010).
- C Bastien, Bento de Jesus Caraça e a economia matemática, Encontro National da SPM (2010), 148-150.
- C Bastien, Bento de Jesus Caraça e a integraçao europeia, Instututo Superior de Economia e Gestão GHES 48 (2012).
- N Bebiano, Bento de Jesus Caraça e a Matemática, aquela difusa substancia, Gazeta de Matemática, Lisboa 141 (2001), 11-23.
- N Bebiano, Bento de Jesus Caraça: esboço biográfico, Gazeta de Matemática, Lisboa 141 (2001), 9-10.
- E Belo, Além do professor nós víamos o cidadao interveniente, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- Bento de Jesus Caraça, Biography, Escola Profissional Bento de Jesus Caraça (Porto, 2008).
- Bento Jesus Caraça, Biografia, Escola Profissional Bento de Jesus Caraça (Porto, 2008).
- Bento Jesus Caraça, Cronologia, Escola Profissional Bento de Jesus Caraça (Porto, 2008).
- Bento Jesus Caraça, Biografias de matemáticos, Só Matemática, Virtuous Tecnologia da Informaçao (1998-2021).
- Bento de Jesus Caraça, Infopédia, Porto Editora, Porto (2003-2021).
- Bento Jesus Caraça, Memorial aos Presos e Perseguidos Políticos.
- B de J Caraça, M da Paz Martins and M Beirão dos Reis, A Matemática na vida dos homens: Bento de Jesus Caraça, Educaçao e Matemática 62 (2001), 3-4.
- J Caraça, Bento de Jesus Caraça: Cem Anos pela Fraternidade, Gazeta de Matemática, Lisboa 141 (2001), 5-6.
- J Caraça, Uma liçao de solidariedade e de liberdade, in L Schmidt and J De Pina-Cabral (eds.), Ciência e cidadania: homenagem a Bento de Jesus Caraça (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 2008), 45-48.
- J Caraça, Bento de Jesus Caraça: A Matemática da Natureza, Educaçao e Matemática 64 (2001), 13-14.
- J Caraça, Intervençao de Joao dos Santos Caraça na Sessao de Evocaçao de Bento de Jesus Caraça. Realizada em 19 de Fevereiro de 2015 na Fundação Mário Soares.
- J Carvalho, Bento de Jesus Caraça: Críticas e propostas para o ensino da Matemática em Portugal, Educaçao e Matemática 128 (2014), 27-32.
- A Coelho, Bento de Jesus Caraça: Um Homem Espantoso e Admirável. Trabalho e Sociedade: Ciclo de Conferências, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- A A da Costa, Bento de Jesus Caraça, Partido Comunista Português.
- C Costa, Ser professor(a) - Tributo a Bento de Jesus Caraça, Educaçao e Matemática 65 (2001), 7-10.
- A Cunhal, Bento Caraça: insigne intelectual comunista. Entrevista, Jornal Avante 1431 (2001), 1-.
- L A C Dias, "Missao histórica" e o "papel dos intelectuais" na filosofia da cultura de Bento de Jesus Caraça: do momento da consciência à consciência do momento, Revista de História das Ideias 24 (2003).
- L Dinis, Uma Carta de Bento Caraça para o meu pai, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- C Dobreira, Bento de Jesus Caraça, cidadão e amante da Serra da Estrela - Depoimento, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- M Fisher, As Minhas recordações das lições do professor Bento de Jesus Caraça e da sua personalidade, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- J Gama, A força da cultura em Bento de Jesus Caraça, Revista Estudos Filosóficos UFSJ 8 (2017).
- M Gusmao, Bento de Jesus Caraça: 1901-2001, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- M Gusmao, Bento de Jesus Caraça, um intelectual militante, "O Militante" 253 (July/August 2001).
- G Lami, "Ah, nao gosta de Matemática, entao vai passar a gostar", in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- G Lami, Conceitos fundamentais da Matemática: algumas reflexões sobre o seu conteúdo e alcance pedagógico, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- G Lami, Bento de Jesus Caraça e os Conceitos Fundamentais da Matemática, Boletim Sociedade Portuguesa de Matemática 65 - Supplement (2011).
- C Leone, Bento de Jesus Caraça, Instituto da Cooperaçao e da Lingua, Camoes, Portugal.
- C Loureiro, Bento de Jesus Caraça 1901-1948, Educaçao e Matemática 49 (1998), 33.
- A Manso, Bento de Jesus Caraça: A demanda pela educaçao integral do indivíduo, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (2009).
- C F de Medeiros and A Medeiros, The dialectical thinking of Bento de Jesus Caraça and his conception of mathematics education (Portuguese), Ciência & Educação 9 (2) (2003), 261-276.
- U Nascimento, Caraça, Bento de Jesus, in António Barreto and Maria Filomena Mónica, Dicionário de História de Portugal 7 (Figueirinhas, Porto, 1999), 230-231.
- H Neves, Bento de Jesus Caraça, um homem que abençoava as ilusoes, Esquerda (18 April 2021).
- H Neves, Bento de Jesus Caraça: uma biografia, in L Schmidt and J De Pina-Cabral (eds.), Ciência e cidadania: homenagem a Bento de Jesus Caraça (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 2008), 33-44.
- Notas Biográficas de Bento de Jesus Caraça, Fundaçao Mário Soares e Maria Barroso.
- A Pedrosa, Bibliografia activa de Bento de Jesus Caraça, in L Schmidt and J De Pina-Cabral (eds.), Ciência e cidadania: homenagem a Bento de Jesus Caraça (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 2008), 59-79.
- A P Pita, Para Situar a Filosofia da Cultura de Bento de Jesus Caraça, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra 37 (1992), 111-127.
- A P Pita, Bento de Jesus Caraça. Crise e Enciclopedismo, Intellèctus 2 (2) (2003), 1-8.
- O Pombo, Bento Jesus Caraça, Biografia, Faculty of Science, University of Lisbon.
- R Ramalho and H Rafael, Mário Soares launches SPM's book of unpublished works by Bento de Jesus Caraça, Portuguese Mathematical Society.
- F Reis, Bento de Jesus Caraça (1901-1948), Personagens, Ciência em Portugal.
- J Resende, Bento de Jesus Caraça, o matemático e lutador, "O Militante" 253 (July/August 2001).
- J Resende, Bento de Jesus Caraça. Militante da cultura integral do indivíduo, Pedra & Cal 42 (April-June 2009), 34-36.
- S Ribeiro, Seminário de Matemáticas Gerais Bento de Jesus Caraça: testemunho, in Bento Jesus Caraça: perspectivas sobre o homem e a obra (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Guarda, 2001).
- J P Rodrigues, Bento de Jesus Caraça, Excelente Matemático e Tagoreano, PGL.gal.
- L Schmidt and J De Pina-Cabral (eds.), Ciência e cidadania: homenagem a Bento de Jesus Caraça (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 2008).
- J S Silva, Bento Caraça e o ensino da Matemática em Portugal, Vértice (1978), 412-414; 516-523.
- B Silveira, Centenário do nascimento de Bento de Jesus Caraça, Educaçao e Matemática 62 (2001), 2.
- M R G Teixeira, A obra de Bento de Jesus Caraça e a Educaçao Matemática em Sao Paulo, Universidade Estadual Paulista.
- A Vilaça, Bento de Jesus Caraça, como militante político, "O Militante" 253 (July/August 2001).
- A de S Zilhao, O Prof. Bento de Jesus Caraça (Livraria Ler editora, Lisboa, 1980).
Additional Resources (show)
Other pages about Bento Caraça:
Other websites about Bento Caraça:
Written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
Last Update March 2022
Last Update March 2022