Lancelot Thomas Hogben


Quick Info

Born
9 December 1895
Southsea, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
Died
22 August 1975
Wrexham, Wrexham, Wales

Summary
Lancelot Hogben was a biologist who wrote Mathematics for the Million, one of the most popular mathematics books of all time. As well as many important contributions to biology, he published on linguistics and statistics.

Biography

Lancelot Hogben was the son of Thomas Hogben (1850-1921) and Margaret Alice Prescott (1858-1949). Thomas was a Methodist who left school at the age of ten and, by the time of the 1871 census, was a coal merchant living as a boarder at the home of the plumber and house decorator William Prescott and his wife Mary Alice née Tunbridge who were also a Methodists. We note that William and Mary's thirteen year old daughter Margaret Alice Prescott was also living there and, at the 1881 census, Thomas Hogben was still living with the Prescotts. On 4 October 1881 Thomas married Margaret Alice Prescott, the marriage taking place at Mildmay Park Methodist Chapel in Islington. Thomas' occupation at the time was given as shop fitter and they lived in Stoke Newington, Middlesex. Thomas and Margaret Hogben had seven children, the first three, Margaret Hogben (1883-1960), Alice Mary Hogben (1885-1904) and William Bramwell Hogben (born and died 1890), being born in Stoke Newington. Thomas became an enthusiastic Methodist preacher devoting more and more of his time to this occupation.

At the time of the 1891 census Thomas was a helper at the Soldier's Institute in Portsmouth and his occupation is given as director of mission work while his wife and two surviving children were living at Stoke Newington. Shortly after this Thomas's father-in-law, William Prescott, retired to Southsea, Portsmouth and set aside part of his home there for Thomas, Margaret and their children. Thomas, supported by his father-in-law, could now be a full-time Methodist preacher and missionary. He owned a 'Welcome Mission' in Portsmouth where he aimed to convert sailors who, he hoped, would in turn take the Methodist message around the world. Thomas and Margaret's four youngest children, Dorothy Hogben (1893-), Lancelot Thomas Hogben (1895-1975), the subject of this biography, George Hamilton Hogben (1897-1967), and Bernard Tunbridge Hogben (1901-1973) were all born in Portsmouth. We note at this point that George Hamilton Hogben became a medical doctor and became a medical officer of health for Hornsey and Tottenham, London.

Lancelot was brought up in a very strict austere regime determined by his parents' Methodist beliefs. There were lengthy prayer sessions before breakfast and after tea every day, while cards, alcohol and tobacco were forbidden and there was careful control of all reading material. The Bible was the main source of reading with insistence that every last detail had to be accepted literally. Lancelot, whose parents decided that he must become a Methodist missionary, had been named after the Methodist missionary the Reverend Lancelot Railton. He was sent to a small private school in Southsea, Portsmouth, to avoid him coming into contact with children his parents described as "common people." It probably achieved that aim but provided an extremely poor education. He was allowed to make occasional visits to his paternal grandfather George Hogben (1809-1906) who lived in Hougham near Folkestone in Kent. George, although long retired, had earnt his living thatching houses and digging ditches and was very knowledgeable about the countryside around his home. Lancelot and his grandfather would go for walks and collect plants and animals which Lancelot classified, a passion he would retain throughout his life.

On 24 October 1905, William Prescott (1830-1905), Lancelot's maternal grandfather, died leaving his property to Lancelot's mother. Some time after this, the Hogben family moved to Stoke Newington and Lancelot attended the Middlesex County Secondary School in Tottenham. At the time of the 1911 census, the family, consisting Thomas, Margaret, their daughters Margaret and Dorothy, and sons Lancelot Thomas, George Hamilton, and Bernard Tunbridge, are in Stoke Newington, living at 91 Bethune Road. Thomas gives his occupation as the editor of "One by One Magazine" of the One by One Working Band. Thomas had [144]:-
... invented, and led for some thirty years, a non-denominational association called the One by One Band, each member of which concentrated on one or more target individuals to be prayed for by name, exhorted, saved and hopefully enrolled in the Band. It grew in this way from a small group of enthusiasts into an internationally distributed organisation with many thousands of members.
At first Lancelot did not excel at the Middlesex County Secondary School. His educational background was weak and his strict background prevented him from taking part in many sporting and social events. The year 1909 was, however, very significant for in the autumn of that year he contracted scarlet fever and could not attend school for a term. He found school books in his home which had belonged to a cousin who was a teacher and he enjoyed learning various subjects on his own, a skill he continued throughout his life. After recovering from scarlet fever, he returned to school, and now topped his classes. He would spend hours at the Stoke Newington public library where he studied works on biology and other academic disciplines. In addition he read widely plays and novels ignoring his parents' rules that he read [76]:-
... no fiction which mentioned an unmarried mother, or work tainted with Darwinism ...
He soon passed examinations in Latin, physics, chemistry, botany and zoology, took the entrance examinations at Trinity College, Cambridge, and was awarded a Major Entrance Scholarship. He also received a London County Council Bursary.

Hogben began his university studies at Trinity College in October 1913 having sought the cheapest possible accommodation. His tutor was the mathematician Ernest William Barnes and this proved a major influence in Hogben's religious development. Barnes had been ordained a deacon but had outspoken views on religion and, rather surprisingly for someone who went on to hold high office in the Church, often unorthodox religious beliefs. Although Hogben had turned against the fundamentalist views of his parents before matriculating at Trinity College, he was still attending Methodist services when he became a student. His discussions with Barnes certainly gave him confidence to seek his own position within Christianity.

He was an outstanding student, although he still preferred to teach himself rather than listening to formal lectures. He loved discussions and attended public lectures from many outstanding thinkers such as Bertrand Russell. Clearly one of the best students, he was awarded a Senior Scholarship and moved into College. In 1914 he sat the External B.Sc. examinations from the University of London and was awarded the degree. He then took the examinations for Part I of the Natural Sciences Tripos and was awarded a First. He also received the Frank Smart Prize as the best student in zoology.

In Hogben's first year at Cambridge the seemingly inevitable path towards a war was clear. Hogben was saddened to see his Methodist contemporaries enthusiastically joining the Officers Training Corps and a student friend suggested he might like to join the Quakers. He wrote [76]:-
I already knew of the Quakers as a denomination which had taken an active part in the emancipation of the slaves, that they regarded military service as contrary to the profession of a Christian and that they proclaimed no dogmas to which a modernist could not subscribe.
He began attending Quaker meetings and by the summer of 1914, just before the outbreak of World War I, he joined the Society of Friends. After passing Part I of the Tripos, he used the rule introduced by Cambridge that war work would count as residence, and first worked for the War Victims Contingent helping build homes for those made homeless by the war, then worked for the Friends' Ambulance Unit based in Dunkirk. Both of these were Quaker organisations. In January 1916 the government passed the Military Service Act making conscription compulsory for all men aged between 18 and 41. There were exemptions and he could almost certainly have been exempted by continuing his work for the Friends' Ambulance Unit. Hogben, however, saw that the Military Service Act changed things - he had undertaken this war work voluntarily but if he continued he would be doing it to avoid conscription. He returned to Cambridge intending to refuse to undertake any type of war work as a conscientious objector.

He graduated in June 1916 before his call-up papers arrived. When the papers arrived he refused to serve, was interrogated at Cambridge, court martialled on Salisbury Plain and, after refusing to undertake a medical examination on religious grounds, was imprisoned in Wormwood Scrubs. Sewing mail bags while in solitary confinement, his health broke down and he was discharged before the end of his three month sentence. He worked as a journalist in London but then, in September 1917, he was appointed as a lecturer in zoology at Birkbeck College.

While working as a journalist in London, he had met up with Dorothy Enid Charles (1894-1972) who he had known at Cambridge. Known as Enid, she was the daughter of the Welsh Congregational Minister James Charles (1847-1920) and his wife Mary Jane Davis (1854-). Enid had studied at Newnham College, Cambridge from 1913 to 1916 taking Part I of the Mathematical tripos and Part II Economics followed by a Social Science diploma from Liverpool University. She was an enthusiastic socialist and feminist, and had arrived in London as an organiser of the women's wing of the Trade Union Movement [144]:-
They moved into a flat in the autumn of 1917 and married shortly afterwards in anticipation of the birth of their first child.
Their first child, Ennyd Sylvia Hogben (1918-1999), was born on 9 December 1918 and was followed by three more children, Charles Adrian Michael Hogben (1921-2001), Claire Estelle Hogben (1924-1999), and David Julian Lancelot Hogben (1929-). Let us note that C A M Hogben became a medic and served as Professor and Executive Officer in Physiology at George Washington University in Washington D.C. and then as Professor and Head of the Physiology and Biophysics Department in the University of Iowa.

Hogben wrote in his autobiographical work [76]:-
For each of us, socialism now filled the religious vacuum that human nature abhors ... Much of my mental energy had hitherto been absorbed in a fruitless search for an intellectually compelling rationale to rescue some fragments from the wreckage of my family faith. The mood of liberation I experienced when I offloaded the last lumber of theism from my mental luggage was no less exhilarating than that of Bunyan's Pilgrim when the burden of sin fell from his back. I was at last free to mobilise all my intellectual resources to pursue a career of scientific research with steadfastness of purpose and, thanks to an over-active thyroid gland, with almost demoniacal energy.
Indeed, his output was remarkable as can be seen from the 144 publications listed in [144] and the selection of his books presented at THIS LINK.

After teaching for the two years 1917-19 at Birkbeck he remained in London, taking up an appointment at the Royal College of Science, part of the Imperial College of Science and Technology. Up until this time he had not studied advanced mathematics but while at the Royal College of Science he attended mathematics lectures by Hyman Levy. Hogben and Hyman Levy were friends and both were politically active with left-wing views. At this time, Hogben was living in a cottage near Amersham and commuted by train every day. While on the train he did the mathematical homework set by Hyman Levy and, as was always the case with Hogben, made his own studies of the subject.

In 1922 Hogben moved to Edinburgh, taking up the position of Deputy Director of the Animal Breeding Research Laboratory. His reason for the move was to continue his cytological work with his friend Frank Crew who had been appointed as Director of the Laboratory. Hogben was awarded a Mackinnon Research Studentship by the Royal Society to support his work in Edinburgh. Although his research at the Laboratory went very well, after a year he accepted a senior lectureship at the University of Edinburgh. While in Edinburgh he was a major figure in the founding of the Journal of Experimental Biology. Despite having a highly productive academic life in Edinburgh, he was not particularly happy in that city and made another move in 1925, accepting an Assistant Professorship of Medical Zoology at McGill University in Montreal, Canada.

Hogben, his wife and their three children, sailed from Southampton on the "Empress of Scotland" on 22 August 1925. They arrived in Quebec on 29 August and travelled to Montreal. They stayed in Canada for only a short while, however, for in January 1927 they sailed on an Elder Dempster cargo boat to South Africa where Hogben was appointed to the Chair of Zoology in Cape Town. He was delighted to find what he described as a "zoologist's paradise" for both teaching and research. He was enthusiastic about teaching and always looked to break with traditional ways and find better methods. His first year lectures at Cape Town became the book Principles of Animal Biology (1930), see extracts from some reviews at THIS LINK.

Perhaps the main reason that Hogben deserves a biography in a History of Mathematics Archive is the fact that he wrote Mathematics for the Million (1936), one of the most popular mathematics books ever published. It was in Cape Town that this book took shape. He writes [76]:-
... the Education Department of Cape Town had decided to introduce Biology as a compulsory subject into the school curriculum; but then there were as yet few, if any, qualified teachers. At 5.00 p.m. I put on a duplicate course of my morning undergraduate lectures for teachers ... It was indeed a challenge to deal with a more critical audience than the docile recipients of instruction earlier in the day. Also it earned me the friendship of Freddie (later Sir Frederick) Clarke, then Professor of Education in Cape Town, but later Director of the London Institute of Education. At his request I met weekly his students for the Education Diploma with carte blanche to talk about anything.
Much of the time, Hogben chose to talk about mathematics with these Education Diploma students. Although it would be some years before he wrote Mathematics for the Million, nevertheless it was these discussions that formed the basis for the book.

Despite South Africa being a "zoologist's paradise," there was one aspect of the country that Hogben detested, namely the increasing moves towards apartheid. Although neither Hogben nor his wife were politically active, it was clear by their actions that they were determined to treat all races equally. Their views were clear, for example, from the fact that Hogben sponsored the young Communist and anti-apartheid activist Edward Roux who was a frequent visitor to his home. Hogben writes [76]:-
... by the beginning of 1929 the prospect was not at all healthy for university staff who openly opposed the Government's racial policy.
The British Association met in Cape Town in 1929 and Hogben's outstanding contributions to the meeting led to his increasingly high reputation among British scientists. His views were also becoming very well known through the books he was publishing, and in particular he made his opposition to the Eugenics Society clear. He returned to England in 1930 when appointed to the newly created Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics.

The 2015 paper [138] explains that Hogben's appointment was not quite the direct competition with R A Fisher as had previously been believed:-
From 1930 to 1937 Lancelot Hogben FRS occupied the Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics and Political Science. According to standard histories of this appointment, he and R A Fisher FRS both applied for the position, but Hogben was selected over Fisher. The episode has received attention in large part because of the later prominence of the two figures involved. The surviving archival records, however, tell a remarkably different story. Neither Fisher nor Hogben was ever an official candidate for the chair. Indeed, Fisher seems not to have applied for the position at all, and Hogben was approached only behind the scenes of the official search.
In 1933 Hogben became ill and required an operation on his sinuses. While in hospital, he claimed, he wrote up the mathematics notes he had made when teaching in Cape Town, to produce the book Mathematics for the Million. He claimed it was "to pass the time" in hospital, but in fact there was a very serious social purpose behind what he wrote. He writes in the Preface:-
... without a knowledge of mathematics, the grammar of science and order, we cannot plan the rational society in which there will be leisure for all and poverty for none.
It must be worth noting that Hogben's wife had a degree in mathematics so discussions with her may have helped develop the book.

At this time Hogben was keen to become a fellow of the Royal Society and he felt that publishing Mathematics for the Million would damage his chances. He therefore offered it to Socialist Book Club to be published anonymously but they turned it down saying "mathematics is a worst seller." Two years later, when talking to his American publisher, he was told that if someone could do for mathematics what H G Wells had done with his Outline of History, it would sell well. Hogben replied that he might have just something in one of his drawers that would fit the bill. When shown the typescript the publisher was keen and Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator was published in 1936. It was an instant best seller, loved by some experts, hated by others. See extracts from a selection of reviews at THIS LINK.

It was in 1936 that Hogben was elected to the Royal Society of London, but he felt that he should have been elected sooner [144]:-
He was elected into the Royal Society in 1936, but he thought, as many of his friends did, that he should have got in sooner. He had begun to suspect that enemies were keeping him out. He had always taken the outward signs of academic success very seriously, and those who knew him well can remember his extreme misery, almost despair, when he heard that X or Y had been preferred, and he must wait for at least another year.
The success of Mathematics for the Million encouraged Hogben to publish a similar work Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery (1938) based on lectures he had been asked to deliver to Civil Service candidates. See extracts from a selection of reviews at THIS LINK.

In 1937 he moved again, this time to become Regius Professor of Natural History in the University of Aberdeen. Perhaps, given his experience in Edinburgh, he might have realised that he would find Aberdeen socially difficult and indeed he did. Royalties from Mathematics for the Million allowed him to purchase a large house there in two acres of land. While in Aberdeen, he became interested in linguistics and would publish several books on this topic. In March 1940, a few months into World War II, he went to Norway to lecture and also to bring his elder daughter, who had been living in Stockholm, back to Scotland. He met with his daughter, gave his last lecture in Oslo, and went to the airport to fly to Copenhagen when Germany invaded and bombed the airport. Soon German troops were on the streets and Hogben, with his daughter, persuaded a lorry driver to take them to the Swedish border. Their return to Scotland proved difficult. They spent two months in Sweden, during which time Hogben translated Swedish books into English, then they flew to Moscow, took the trans-Siberian railway to Vladivostok, continued to Japan, sailed from there to San Francisco, then took a train to New York. After one semester as a visiting professor at the University of Wisconsin, he had saved enough money to pay his fare back to Britain, and sailed to Liverpool arriving in February 1941. He was only to remain in Aberdeen for a few more months, and later in 1941 he was appointed as Mason Professor of Zoology at the University of Birmingham.

D'Arcy Thompson wrote about Hogben in a letter, dated March 1943, addressed to Dorothy Wrinch [140]:-
You ask about Hogben. I believe he's going very strong indeed, and taking his place on the Council of the Royal Society very seriously. But I haven't seen him for ever so long. I never go to London these days. ... Hogben seemed to me to leave Aberdeen without the very least tinge of regret, a little to my surprise. He doesn't worry about that sort of sentimentality!
Hogben had been becoming increasingly ill for a couple of years and in December 1942 he had an operation and spent two months in hospital. Soon after he came out of hospital, he was asked to go to London and undertake war work on the Army Medical Statistics in the War Office. It was the start of a new direction for Hogben who now, when he returned to Birmingham in 1947, worked on medical statistics. You can read extracts from reviews of his statistics texts at THIS LINK.

In 1957 Hogben was divorced and, later in the same year, he married Sarah Jane Evans (1903-1974). His first marriage had effectively ended in 1953, the divorce being arranged so that he could marry again. Sarah had been previously married to Arthur Roberts. In 1961 Hogben retired from Birmingham and was made an Honorary Senior Fellow in Linguistics. With incredible dedication, he continued to write on the broad range of subjects that fascinated him, always relating them to social issues. His last books included science books written for children. He did, however, have one further appointment, namely to British Guiana, to become Vice-Chancellor of the projected University of Guyana. The final decade of his life, 1965-75, was spent in Wales where both he and his wife suffered from poor health. His wife died of cancer in April 1974 and, after a lonely final year, he died in August 1975.

Let us end by quoting George Philip Wells' description of his character [144]:-
He was small, lightly built, bright-eyed, intensely alive. His ceaseless activity is legendary, as is the range of his interests - much wider even than the range of his publications. He was, for example, a great quoter of the Bible. He was fascinated by theological disputation and could explain the doctrinal peculiarities of a dozen or so Christian sects. He was expert on the flora of Dartmoor and on the cynipid galls in his Devonshire garden. Most of the furniture in his various cottages was made by himself. He wrote two volumes of poetry. He played the recorder, reputedly with more persistence than skill. He walked and gardened, but had no inclination for organized sport or games.
...
If he liked you he was wonderful company - witty, erudite, warmly and genuinely interested in people. But he was also shy and sensitive, and his friendships were often interrupted by quarrels. ... He could be a difficult colleague. He was incapable of concealing disapproval or personal dislike. He was ambitious; he would have liked, and at one time thought he was going to get, a knighthood. The belief that contemporary university education is all wrong was built into his humanist faith and this led him, not only to drastic revision of the educational structure of the Departments of which he was made the head, but also to putting forward recommendations, not always tactful and not always welcome, about how other areas of the University should be set in order. His plans were often frustrated and he could be unforgiving in defeat. Some saw in him at least a touch of paranoia ...
Let us note that G P Wells, the author of [144], was a leading zoologist and the son of H G Wells.


References (show)

  1. S Alderson, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 106 (5022) (1958), 462-463.
  2. H Alpert, Review: Dangerous Thoughts, by Lancelot Hogben, American Sociological Review 5 (5) (1940), 808-810.
  3. Anon, Review: A Short Life of Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), by Lancelot Hogben, The Journal of Education 89 (16) (2226) (1919), 441.
  4. Anon, Review: Exiles of the Snow, and Other Poems, by Lancelot Hogben, The Egoist 5 (5) (1918), 75.
  5. Anon, Review: Genetic Principles in Medical and Social Science, by Lancelot Hogben, Charity Organisation Quarterly 6 (4) (1932), 182-185.
  6. Anon, Review: Nature or Nurture - The William Withering Lectures for 1933, by Lancelot Hogben, Bios 5 (1) (1934), 28-29.
  7. Anon, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 85 (4411) (1937), 693.
  8. Anon, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, Copeia 1939 (1) (1939), 58.
  9. Anon, Review: How the world was explored, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Education 38 (1) (1954), 116.
  10. Anon, Review: Beginnings and Blunders or Before Science Began, by Lancelot Hogben, Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books 25 (1) (1971), 8.
  11. Anon, Review: Astronomer Priest and Ancient Mariner (1972), by Lancelot Hogben, The Junior Bookshelf 36 (1972), 402.
  12. Anon, Review: Maps, Mirrors and Mechanics, by Lancelot Hogben, Appraisal (1974), 22.
  13. Anon, Review: Columbus, the Cannon Ball and the Common Pump, by Lancelot Hogben, The Junior Bookshelf 39 (1975), 197.
  14. Anon, Review: Dangerous Thoughts, by Lancelot Hogben, Time (16 January 2008).
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  16. M F Ashley-Montagu, Review: Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery, by Lancelot Hogben, Isis 31 (2) (1940), 467-469.
  17. R E B, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994) 77 (1) (1951), 151-152.
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  20. A A Bennett, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, Science, New Series 86 (2232) (1937), 330.
  21. BMJ, Review: An Introduction to Recent Advances in Comparative Physiology, by Lancelot Hogben and Frank R Winton, The British Medical Journal 1 (3358) (1925), 886.
  22. BMJ, Review: The Pigmentary Effector System. A review of the physiology of colour response, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 2 (3315) (1924), 56-57.
  23. BMJ, Review: Comparative Physiology of Internal Secretion, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 1 (3501) (1928), 223.
  24. BMJ, Review: Comparative Physiology, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 1 (3449) (1927), 291.
  25. BMJ, Review: The Nature of Living Matter, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 1 (3661) (1931), 404-405.
  26. BMJ, Review: Principles of Animal Biology, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 1 (3652) (1931), 18.
  27. BMJ, Review: Genetic Principles in Medical and Social Science, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 1 (3710) (1932), 293-294.
  28. BMJ, Review: Nature or Nurture - The William Withering Lectures for 1933, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 1 (3822) (1934), 621-622.
  29. BMJ, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, The British Medical Journal 2 (4055) (1938), 661.
  30. BMJ, Review: Principles of Animal Biology (Second Edition), by Lancelot Hogben and J F Horrabin, The British Medical Journal 2 (4155) (1940), 258.
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  33. T A A Broadbent, Review: The Wonderful World of Mathematics (New, revised, and, enlarged edition), by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematical Gazette 53 (385) (1969), 332.
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  35. B C Brookes, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematical Gazette 40 (332) (1956), 156-158.
  36. W O Brown, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, Science & Society 3 (2) (1939), 264-266.
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  38. S Bundey, Scientist, educator, and humanist, The Lancet (14 February 1998).
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  40. A M Carr-Saunders, Review: Genetic Principles in Medical and Social Science, by Lancelot Hogben, The Economic Journal 42 (166) (1932), 304-306.
  41. A M Carr-Saunders, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, The Economic Journal 48 (192) (1938), 707-708.
  42. J Case, Review: Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress (1933-) 33 (132) (1939), 801.
  43. D G Champernowne, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, The Economic Journal 60 (240) (1950), 785-787.
  44. D G Champernowne, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, The Economic Journal 65 (260) (1955), 692-693.
  45. A Chapanis, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, The Quarterly Review of Biology 27 (2) (1952), 247.
  46. I B Cohen, Review: From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication, by Lancelot Hogben, Scientific American 182 (2) (1950), 58-59.
  47. I B Cohen, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Scientific American 184 (2) (1951), 70.
  48. E C Colin, Review: An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics, by Lancelot Hogben, The American Biology Teacher 9 (9) (1947), 283-284.
  49. C W Cotterman, Review: An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the American Statistical Association 42 (237) (1947), 184-185.
  50. W C Cullis, Review: Comparative Physiology, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress in the Twentieth Century (1919-1933) 21 (84) (1927), 727-728.
  51. W C Cullis, Review: An Introduction to Recent Advances in Comparative Physiology, by Lancelot Hogben and Frank R Winton, Science Progress in the Twentieth Century (1919-1933) 20 (78) (1925), 364.
  52. F N David, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Biometrika 39 (1/2) (1952), 213.
  53. F N David, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, Biometrika 43 (1/2) (1956), 236.
  54. F N David, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress (1933-) 47 (185) (1959), 133-134.
  55. J L Doob, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, Science & Society 1 (4) (1937), 577-579.
  56. D W Douglas, Review: Author in Transit, by Lancelot Hogben, American Sociological Review 7 (1) (1942), 151-153.
  57. E M East, Review: Genetic Principles in Medical and Social Science, by Lancelot Hogben, Economica 36 (1932), 235-238.
  58. J Edwards, Review: Lancelot Hogben: scientific humanist: an unauthorised autobiography, by Anne Hogben, Lancelot Thomas Hogben and Adrian Hogben, Journal of Medical Genetics 35 (11) (1998), 966-968.
  59. S J Erlingsson, "Enfant Terrible": Lancelot Hogben's Life and Work in the 1920s, Journal of the History of Biology 49 (3) (2016), 495-526.
  60. E B F, Review: Nature or Nurture - The William Withering Lectures for 1933, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress (1933-) 29 (113) (1934), 175-176.
  61. B W F, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress (1933-) 32 (125) (1937), 154-155.
  62. C R Fay, Review: History of the Homeland: The Story of the British Background by Henry Hamilton, edited by Lancelot Hogben, The American Economic Review 38 (4) (1948), 648- 649.
  63. W Feller, Review: An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics, by Lancelot Hogben, The American Mathematical Monthly 54 (7.1) (1947), 423-424.
  64. R A Fisher, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress (1933-) 33 (131) (1939), 611-613.
  65. R L G, Review: Mathematics in the Making, by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematical Gazette 45 (353) (1961), 259-260.
  66. P Gennaro, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint, by Lancelot Hogben, Il Politico 24 (4) (1959), 864.
  67. C Gini, Review: Nature or Nurture - The William Withering Lectures for 1933, by Lancelot Hogben, Genus 4 (3/4) (1940), 190-191.
  68. C Gini, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, Genus 12 (1/4) (1956), 284.
  69. B Glass, Review: The New Authoritarianism: Conway Memorial Lecture 1949, by Lancelot Hogben, The Quarterly Review of Biology 25 (2) (1950), 200.
  70. E Grebenik, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Economica, New Series 19 (74) (1952), 221-223.
  71. A Guérard, Review: The Loom of Language: A Guide To Foreign Languages For The Home Student by Frederick Bodmer, edited by Lancelot Hogben, Books Abroad 18 (4) (1944), 355-356.
  72. J H Jr, Review: The Retreat from Reason: Conway Memorial Lecture 20 May 1936, by Lancelot Hogben, The Journal of Philosophy 35 (2) (1938), 51-53.
  73. H W H, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994) 84 (1) (1958), 114-116.
  74. A R Hall, Review: Mathematics in the Making, by Lancelot Hogben, Scientific American 205 (6) (1961), 186-187.
  75. H E Hawkes, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, The Journal of Higher Education 9 (1) (1938), 53-54.
  76. A Hogben, Lancelot Thomas Hogben and Adrian Hogben, Lancelot Hogben: scientific humanist: an unauthorised autobiography (The Merlin Press, 1997).
  77. H Hoijer, Review: The Loom of Language: A Guide To Foreign Languages For The Home Student by Frederick Bodmer, edited by Lancelot Hogben, Language 21 (2) (1945), 100-108.
  78. C L Hubbs, Review: An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics, by Lancelot Hogben, The American Naturalist 81 (800) (1947), 382.
  79. J Knowelden, Review: Design of Documents. A Study of Mechanical Aids to Field Enquiries, by Lancelot Hogben and K W Cross, The British Medical Journal 1 (5238) (1961), 1517-1518.
  80. N L Johnson, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 118 (4) (1955), 485-486.
  81. J Johnstone, Review: The Nature of Living Matter, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of Philosophical Studies 6 (21) (1931), 127-130.
  82. D M Jones, Review: The Mother Tongue, by Lancelot Hogben, The Classical Review 17 (3) (1967), 393-394.
  83. H M Kallen, Review: From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication, by Lancelot Hogben, Social Research 18 (1) (1951), 122-125.
  84. M Keynes, Review: Lancelot Hogben: scientific humanist: an unauthorised autobiography, by Anne Hogben, Lancelot Thomas Hogben and Adrian Hogben, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 53 (3) (1999), 361-369.
  85. M Keynes, Lancelot Hogben, FRS (1895-1975), Galton Institute Newsletter 43 December 2001).
    https://web.archive.org/web/20150924020541/http:/www.galtoninstitute.org.uk/Newsletters/GINL0112/Lancelot_Hogben.htm
  86. M Kline, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint, by Lancelot Hogben, Scientific American 198 (5) (1958), 143-146.
  87. G Kurz, Review: The Loom of Language: A Guide To Foreign Languages For The Home Student by Frederick Bodmer, edited by Lancelot Hogben, The French Review 18 (2) (1944), 121-123.
  88. J L, Review: Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 86 (4482) (1938), 1144-1145.
  89. F Lorimer, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 203 (1939), 241-242.
  90. P G M, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994) 81 (3) (1955), 318-319.
  91. H F M, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, The High School Journal 21 (5) (1938), 186-187.
  92. J L M, Review: Principles of Animal Biology (Second Edition), by Lancelot Hogben and J F Horrabin, Man 41 (1941), 67.
  93. A J H M, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, The Incorporated Statistician 1 (2) (1950), 29-30.
  94. K Mather, Review: An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics, by Lancelot Hogben, Science, New Series 106 (2741) (1947), 45-46.
  95. E A Maxwell, Review: Mathematics for the Million (Twenty-Fourth Edition), by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematical Gazette 52 (380) (1968), 201-202.
  96. R K Merton, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, Isis 30 (3) (1939), 555-557.
  97. L J Milne and M J Milne, Review: From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication, by Lancelot Hogben, The Quarterly Review of Biology 25 (2) (1950), 264.
  98. A M Mood, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Econometrica 20 (2) (1952), 342-343.
  99. P Morrison, Review: The Vocabulary Of Science, by Lancelot Hogben and Maureen Cartwright, Scientific American 224 (1) (1971), 120.
  100. E N, Review: Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery, by Lancelot Hogben, The Journal of Philosophy 36 (2) (1939), 54-55.
  101. J R Newman, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator (Third Edition), by Lancelot Hogben, Scientific American 186 (3) (1952), 79.
  102. S A Nock, Review: Dangerous Thoughts, by Lancelot Hogben, The Sewanee Review 48 (4) (1940), 572-576.
  103. G O'B, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review 27 (106) (1938), 346-348.
  104. C O'D, Review: Principles of Animal Biology, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress in the Twentieth Century (1919-1933) 25 (100) (1931), 722-723.
  105. W F Ogburn, Review: Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery, by Lancelot Hogben, American Journal of Sociology 44 (4) (1939), 584-585.
  106. G E Oehser, Review: From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication, by Lancelot Hogben, The Scientific Monthly 70 (2) (1950), 134-135.
  107. J P, Review: Principles of Animal Biology, by Lancelot Hogben, Geography 17 (1) (1932), 75.
  108. R L P, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 113 (4) (1950), 580-582.
  109. M A Pei, Review: Interglossa: A Draft of an Auxiliary for a Democratic world order, Being an Attempt to Apply Semantic Principles to Language Design, by Lancelot Hogben, The Modern Language Journal 28 (7) (1944), 633-639.
  110. M A Pei, Review: The Loom of Language: A Guide To Foreign Languages For The Home Student by Frederick Bodmer, edited by Lancelot Hogben, The Modern Language Journal 28 (7) (1944), 633-639.
  111. M A Pei, Review: From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication, by Lancelot Hogben, The Modern Language Journal 34 (4) (1950), 326-327.
  112. R L Plackett, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics) 5 (1) (1956), 68.
  113. R L Plackett, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint, by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematical Gazette 42 (341) (1958), 244-245.
  114. M Perutz, Review: Lancelot Hogben: scientific humanist: an unauthorised autobiography, by Anne Hogben, Lancelot Thomas Hogben and Adrian Hogben, Times Higher Education (31 July 1998).
  115. W D R, Review: Mathematics for the Million (Textbook edition), by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematics Teacher 30 (7) (1937), 348.
  116. J L D R, Review: Interglossa: A Draft of an Auxiliary for a Democratic world order, Being an Attempt to Apply Semantic Principles to Language Design, by Lancelot Hogben, The Journal of Hellenic Studies 63 (1943), 138-139.
  117. W R, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 2), by Lancelot Hogben, The Incorporated Statistician 6 (1) (1955), 45-46.
  118. S E Rasor, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, Educational Research Bulletin 17 (6) (1938), 171.
  119. J Ravetz, Review: Mathematics in the Making, by Lancelot Hogben, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 12 (48) (1962), 344-346.
  120. E B Reuter, Review: Genetic Principles in Medical and Social Science, by Lancelot Hogben, American Journal of Sociology 39 (1) (1933), 115.
  121. F Roberts, Review: The Vocabulary Of Science, by Lancelot Hogben and Maureen Cartwright, The British Medical Journal 3 (5716) (1970), 215.
  122. F A Ross, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, American Sociological Review 4 (2) (1939), 287-288.
  123. E Rubin, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint (Reissue), by Lancelot Hogben, Monthly Labor Review 91 (12) (1968), 66.
  124. A C S, Review: From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication, by Lancelot Hogben, The Burlington Magazine 93 (576) (1951), 99-100.
  125. F H S, Review: Dangerous Thoughts, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 88 (4569) (1940), 846-848.
  126. V Sanford, Review: The Wonderful World of Mathematics, by Lancelot Hogben, The Arithmetic Teacher 3 (4) (1956), 174-175.
  127. S Sarkar, Lancelot Hogben, 1895-1975, Genetics 142 (3) (1996), 655-660.
  128. M Scriven, Review: Science in Authority: Essays, by Lancelot Hogben, Philosophy of Science 31 (2) (1964), 184-186.
  129. G W Snedecor, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the American Statistical Association 46 (254) (1951), 255-257.
  130. C A B Smith, Review: Statistical theory. The relationship of probability, credibility and error. An examination of the contemporary crisis in statistical theory from a behaviourist viewpoint, by Lancelot Hogben, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 121 (2) (1958), 234-236.
  131. D E Smith, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematics Teacher 30 (5) (1937), 252-253.
  132. C M Sparrow, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, The Virginia Quarterly Review 13 (3) (1937), 474-480.
  133. D J Struik, Review: Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery, by Lancelot Hogben, Science & Society 3 (4) (1939), 544-548.
  134. O Struve, Review: Science for the Citizen: with a novel treatment of atomic energy (New revised edition), by Lancelot Hogben, Scientific American 187 (2) (1952), 71-72.
  135. H W Syer, Review: Mathematics in the Making, by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematics Teacher 55 (7) (1962), 596-599.
  136. J Tabery, R A Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the origin(s) of genotype-environment interaction, Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4) (2008), 717-761.
  137. J Tabery, Biometric and developmental gene-environment interactions: Looking back, moving forward, Development and Psychopathology 19 (4) (2007), 961-976.
  138. J Tabery and S Sarkar, R A Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the 'competition' for the Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics in 1930: correcting the legend, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 69 (4) (2015), 437-446.
  139. W Taylor, Lancelot Hogben, FRS (1895-1975), Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 140 (2) (1977), 261-262.
  140. D'Arcy Thompson, Letter to Dorothy Wrinch dated March 1943, University of St Andrews Archives.
  141. C O Tuckey, Review: Mathematics for the Million (Textbook edition), by Lancelot Hogben, The Mathematical Gazette 21 (243) (1937), 166-173.
  142. J H W, Review: The Pigmentary Effector System. A review of the physiology of colour response, by Lancelot Hogben, Science Progress in the Twentieth Century (1919-1933) 19 (75) (1925), 522-523.
  143. G Waldo Dunnington, Review: Mathematics for the Million: A Popular Self-Educator, by Lancelot Hogben, National Mathematics Magazine 12 (3) (1937), 157-158.
  144. G P Wells, Lancelot Thomas Hogben. 9 December 1895-22 August 1975, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 24 (1978), 183-21.
  145. P K Whelpton, Review: Political Arithmetic: A Symposium of Population Studies, edited by Lancelot Hogben, American Journal of Sociology 47 (5) (1942), 768-770.
  146. H Whitehall, Review: The Loom of Language: A Guide To Foreign Languages For The Home Student by Frederick Bodmer, edited by Lancelot Hogben, The Kenyon Review 6 (4) (1944), 672-676.
  147. M Wight, Review: The New Authoritarianism: Conway Memorial Lecture 1949, by Lancelot Hogben, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 26 (3) (1950), 385-386.
  148. D C Williams, Review: Chance and Choice by Cardpack and Chessboard (Volume 1), by Lancelot Hogben, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 12 (3) (1952), 434-436.
  149. R R Wilson, Review: The Wonderful World Of Energy, by Lancelot Hogben, Scientific American 199 (6) (1958), 149-150.
  150. P S Wingert, Review: From Cave Painting To Comic Strip: A Kaleidoscope of Human Communication, by Lancelot Hogben, American Anthropologist 53 (3) (1951), 403-404.
  151. C P Winsor, Review: An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics, by Lancelot Hogben, Mathematical Reviews MR0019906 (8,478f).
  152. J H Woodger, Review: The Nature of Living Matter, by Lancelot Hogben, Mind 40 (159) (1931), 375-381.
  153. J H Woodger, Review: Genetic Principles in Medical and Social Science, by Lancelot Hogben, Philosophy 7 (27) (1932), 351-352.
  154. S Wright, Review: An Introduction to Mathematical Genetics, by Lancelot Hogben, The Quarterly Review of Biology 22 (2) (1947), 149-150.

Additional Resources (show)

Other pages about Lancelot Hogben:

  1. Lancelot Hogben's books

Other websites about Lancelot Hogben:

  1. MathSciNet Author profile
  2. zbMATH entry

Honours (show)

Honours awarded to Lancelot Hogben

  1. Fellow of the Royal Society 1936

Cross-references (show)


Written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
Last Update July 2022