# Oskar Morgenstern

### Quick Info

Görlitz, Germany

Princeton, New Jersey, USA

**Oskar Morgenstern**was a German-Austrian-American mathematical economist who is best known as the co-author with John von Neumann of the book

*Theory of games and economic behavior*(1944).

### Biography

**Oskar Morgenstern**was the son of the merchant Wilhelm Morgenstern and Margarete Teichler [52]:-

[Oskar's] father Wilhelm is described by historian Robert Leonard as a businessman and merchant, although Oskar described him as more of a "ne'er-do-well" who at times seemed unable to hold a job.Both views expressed in this quote may well be true since it appears that in Germany Wilhelm Morgenstern lost the family fortune on poor business ventures. The family moved to Austria in 1914 and Wilhelm worked for Julius Meinl and Co., the coffee and tea importer, in Vienna; the family was modestly comfortable. Oskar Morgenstern's mother Margarete Teichler was, apparently, an illegitimate daughter of Emperor Frederick III Germany and the daughter of his head gardener. Oskar often suggested that [48]:-

... if his grandfather Frederick, a liberal who surrounded himself with scholars and artists, had lived, there might have been no World War I. But Frederick III reigned only 100 days, and died of throat cancer.Oskar was twelve years old when the Morgenstern family moved to Vienna. He attended the Gymnasium where he did well in German but less well in Latin and mathematics [21]:-

At the Gymnasium, like many of his fellows, he entertained strong German nationalist feelings, writing youthful articles denouncing foreign cultural influences.Morgenstern would in later life have very different views from those he expressed as a young man but anyone interested in social issues at this time had to be influenced by the strong views being expressed by their teachers and others around them. He wrote [37]:-

... what would Europe be, what would the world be without the German people and its achievements! Germany can be satisfied with itself, there is no need to borrow from foreign peoples, who force it to further intellectual enslavement, but from its simply inexhaustible resources it is able to give to all those who want to receive. And yet, Germany does borrow: theatre and poetry are signs of a depressed mind. This has to be fought. All the foreign dirt which will wipe out healthy ideas, has to be removed with violence.Tuberculosis became a serious problem in many countries during and after World War I and in Vienna it was particularly bad with the situation becoming slowly worse from 1914 to 1920. Morgenstern's parents sent him to spend the summers of 1921 and 1922 with relatives in Sweden to reduce the risk for him. We mentioned above that Morgenstern's father worked for Julius Meinl and it was Meinl who strongly encouraged the young boy to undertake scholarly studies. Morgenstern entered the University of Vienna in 1922 intending to study economics. This required him to enrol for a degree in political science taught in the Faculty of Law. As a consequence he took courses on economics, philosophy, and political and economic history but no science or mathematics courses were offered.

The first to be a strong influence on Morgenstern was Othmar Spann (1878-1950), a professor of Economics. Spann's lectures took a philosophical approach and he had strong views particularly opposing the philosophy of individualism. Morgenstern wrote in his diary in 1923:-

Looking at my papers, work and reading, one would think I were a student of philosophy and not of economics. But that is no disgrace ... my philosophical knowledge is very fragmentary in comparison to my knowledge of economics.He would, however, soon move away from Spann's ideas and completely reject them. Later in 1923 he took a course by Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser (1851-1926) who had been a student of the economist Carl Menger, the father of the mathematician Karl Menger. Von Wieser was highly critical of Spann's views and led Morgenstern to study the works of Carl Menger. Von Wieser retired and Hans Mayer (1879-1955) was appointed. Mayer was a follower of von Wieser and Carl Menger, and gave Morgenstern an understanding of the place of mathematics in economic analysis. Morgenstern wrote:-

Spann thought that through me he would exert an influence on Mayer and get him on the right track - you know, anti-Marxist and anti-everything. ... It didn't turn out this way because I got captured by marginal utility theory and Mayer pulled me into his orbit and Wieser's orbit.Morgenstern was also influenced by the economist Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), the elder brother of the mathematician Richard von Mises. Ludwig von Mises was on the staff at the University of Vienna and hoped to become a professor when von Wieser retired. Being Jewish may have been a factor in his failure to be appointed. Von Mises was less keen on mathematical applications to economics. He said (see [21]):-

All of mathematical economics with its beautiful equations and curves is nothing but useless doodling. The equations and curves must be preceded by non-mathematical considerations; setting up equations does not enhance our knowledge.In 1925 Morgenstern was awarded a doctorate for his thesis on marginal productivity. In the same year be took Austrian Nationality and was awarded a Laura Spelman Rockefeller Fellowship, which allowed him to undertake further study in London before visiting Harvard and Columbia in the United States. While at the London School of Economics, Morgenstern visited Francis Edgeworth in Oxford since he wanted to discuss Edgeworth's contract curve in his

*Mathematical Psychics*[26]:-

On my way to the United States in 1925 I visited the aged Edgeworth in Oxford. I expressed great pleasure at the publication of his collected papers, but urged him repeatedly to republish the 'Mathematical Psychics', then totally out of print. His death intervened before he could carry out my suggestion, which he had accepted.In the United States the Rockefeller Fellowship allowed him to spend some time in New York at Columbia University and at Harvard in Cambridge. He was then awarded a research fellowship in economics at Harvard University for the academic year of 1926-27. While at Harvard he wrote his first book

*Wirtschaftsprognose, eine Untersuchung über ihre Voraussetzungen und Möglichkeiten*Ⓣ which was published in 1928. He writes [26]:-

In that book ... the whole question of economic forecasting was examined epistemologically, and the difficulties and virtual impossibilities of prediction were studied to the best of my then-existing knowledge. In my general scientific outlook I was strongly influenced by the work of Hermann Weyl, Bertrand Russell, and others in the mathematical and physical sciences.After the year at Harvard, he was awarded a fellowship for studies in Paris and Rome in 1927-28 before returning to Vienna. On 24 May 1928 his habilitation thesis was approved and he was invited to give an examination lecture despite an objection from Spann who abstained in the vote. Spann tried unsuccessfully to get the faculty to reverse its decision on 16 June but the examination lecture went ahead and the faculty applied to the Ministry for Morgenstern's habilitation to be approved. Again Spann abstained and this was noted on the request which went to the Ministry. The Ministry did not respond and Hans Mayer and others wrote providing further evidence to support Morgenstern. Eventually, in 1929, the Ministry found that "Professor Spann's isolated opinion does not offer enough reason to withhold approval of the habilitation ..." and Morgenstern became a Private Lecturer of Political Economy.

In 1931 Morgenstern was appointed head of the Austrian Institute for Economic Research. In 1935 he published the paper

*Vollkommene Voraussicht und Wirtschaftliches Gleichgewicht*Ⓣ. In this paper he [25]:-

... insisted that perfect foresight, if such a thing could ever exist, would not banish risk since "always there is exhibited an endless chain of reciprocally conjectural reactions and counter-reactions. This chain can never be broken by an act of knowledge but always only through an arbitrary act - a resolution. ... Unlimited foresight and economic equilibrium are thus irreconcilable with one another."This paper led to an invitation to Morgenstern to speak at the Vienna Circle. Members of the Vienna Circle, which was led by the philosopher Moritz Schlick, included the mathematicians Hans Hahn, Karl Menger and Kurt Gödel, the physicist Philipp Frank, the social scientist Otto Neurath, his wife, the mathematician Olga Hahn-Neurath, the philosopher Viktor Kraft, the mathematicians Theodor Radacovic and Gustav Bergmann, and the philosopher and logician Rudolf Carnap. Morgenstern discussed the ideas in his paper in a lengthy session and attended several other sessions of the Vienna Circle. Karl Menger was very interested in Morgenstern's talk to the Vienna Circle and invited him to give the same talk to his Colloquium.

Eduard Cech was at Morgenstern's talk to Menger's Colloquium and Cech pointed out that von Neumann had addressed similar questions in his 1928 paper

*Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele*Ⓣ. Morgenstern explained in [26] how this discussion with Cech led to his increasing interest in mathematics:-

Cech outlined to me its principal ideas and results and was very eager that I should study this particular work. I intended to do so, but the great burden of work I was carrying at that time as director of the Institute of Business Cycle Research during civil war conditions, with the Nazis threatening, with frequent trips to the League of Nations in Geneva, to Paris and London, etc., made this impossible. Nevertheless, even during those years in the 1930's in Vienna, I managed to read a lot of logic and set theory, e.g., Hilbert-Ackermann, Fraenkel, Hilbert-Bernays, Hahn, Hausdorff, etc. I also attempted to approach Kurt Gödel's great work on undecidability, helped and guided by my friend Karl Menger. At the same time Abraham Wald, to whom I had been able to offer a position as statistician in my Institute, gave me special instruction in various fields of mathematics.Morgenstern's international reputation grew and he was invited by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to visit four American universities in 1938. He sailed on the Bremen from Cherbourg, France, arriving in New York on 20 January 1939. His original intended length of stay in the United States was five months. German troops marched into Austria in March 1938 and, on 13 March, the Anschluss annexed Austria into the German Reich. On 22 April 1938, since Morgenstern's ideas did not align with those of the Nazis, the Ministry of Education suspended his teaching licence until further notice. Morgenstern extended his U.S. visa so that he could stay in the United States until 1 October 1938. In September 1938 the Ministry of Education revoked his habilitation so that he could no longer teach in Austria. By this time Morgenstern had already decided that he would stay in the United States and not return to Austria. From six invitations, he chose to accept a three-year appointment as Class of 1913 Lecturer in Political Economy at Princeton University. In a letter written on 21 July 1938, he explained his reasons (see for example [39]):-

For many reasons I choose Princeton, partly because it is but one hour from New York partly, however, because they wanted me already last year which shows that they wanted me independently of the events in Austria. This gives it a very nice psychological side.At Princeton, Morgenstern soon met other scientists with whom he could discuss applying mathematical ideas to economics. On 1 February 1939 he met John von Neumann, Niels Bohr, Oswald Veblen and others at the Nassau Club. Bohr and von Neumann invited Morgenstern to tea at Fine Hall and they had lengthy discussions, mostly involving Bohr's ideas on quantum theory, particularly how an observer influenced the results of experiments. He dined with these and others at Hermann Weyl's house, where he met Albert Einstein and discussed with him how intuition affected behaviour. Morgenstern and von Neumann began intense discussions in October 1939 but at this stage they do not seem to have been talking about game theory. Their friendship developed and von Neumann and his wife invited Morgenstern to dinner at their home on 25 January 1940, 9 March 1940 and 1 April 1940.

Von Neumann became more interested in Morgenstern's work, and read Morgenstern's 1934 paper

*Das Zeitmoment in der Wertlehre*Ⓣ in the

*Journal of Economics*. He said it was excellent and was worth expanding into a book. The two were now having many deep discussions but this was interrupted when, at the beginning of May, von Neumann left for a trip to the West Coast. Morgenstern noted in his diary on 3 May 1940 (see for example [39]):-

We spent several evenings together and discussed for many hours. Mainly mathematical economics. It would be wonderful, if we could write a book together.The trip to the West Coast was part work, part pleasure, for von Neumann. He lectured in Seattle on the theory of games and wrote to Morgenstern on 16 July saying he had some new results on four-or-more-person games.

By August 1940 von Neumann was back in Princeton and the collaboration continued. Von Neumann was working intensely on other topics, but still found time to write two papers on game theory. Morgenstern, at von Neumann's suggestion, began work on a paper on maxims of behaviour. Morgenstern tried to simplify von Neumann's theory of games and von Neumann suggested that the two should write a joint book. By September 1941 they had a draft of the first chapter, and by November of that year had a draft of Chapter 2. Collaboration became more difficult when von Neumann moved to Washington in September 1942 but by the end of 1942 the manuscript of their book

*Theory of games and economic behavior*was complete. Von Neumann went to Europe in January 1943 and Morgenstern organised the typing of the text and the drawing of diagrams and graphs. He gave the completed work to Princeton University Press and the book was published in 1944.

For more information about

*Theory of games and economic behavior*including extracts from the Preface and from reviews, see THIS LINK.

In 1944 Morgenstern became a full professor at Princeton.

After the event, Morgenstern wrote about how he and Einstein helped Gödel get his American naturalisation in 1947. You can read about this at THIS LINK.

He married Dorothy L Young (1917-2008) in 1948, the marriage licence being issued on 4 June 1948. Dorothy Young was the daughter of Andrew Dewing Young (1877-1956) and his wife Frieda Elling (1881-1960). Oskar and Dorothy Morgenstern had two children, Carl Friedrich Morgenstern (born 1950) and Karin Dewing Morgenstern. Carl Morgenstern studied mathematics and was awarded a Ph.D. by the University of Colorado Boulder in 1977 for his thesis

*Compact Extensions of $L^{\omega}$ and Topics in Set Theory*. Karin Morgenstern graduated from Princeton Day School then senior majored in Fine Arts and English Literature at Bard College at Simon's Rock in Great Barrington, Massachusetts (1977). She did graduate work at the Philadelphia College of Art and at the University of Maine at Orono. She worked as a preschool teacher in Las Vegas and married Michael Louis Papp on 30 May 1987.

Morgenstern's life was completely changed by his work on game theory. He was asked to undertake many advisory roles. For example he became an advisor to the Rand Corporation in 1948, from 1955 to 1957 he advised the United States Atomic Energy Commission, an agency of the United States government set up after World War II by the U.S. Congress, and from 1959 to 1960 he was an advisor to the White House.

The importance that game theory achieved, with Morgenstern seen as a world leading expert, can be seen by its influence on major world events. When the Korean War broke out in 1951, the United States under President Truman, asked Morgenstern and his game theory colleagues for the best resolution of the conflict. Morgenstern and colleagues constructed a 3000 × 3000 strategy matrix and calculated the ideal solution on an ENIAC-Computer. Taking the game theory "best strategy", President Truman decided that his troops should not cross the Yalu River and that a ceasefire should be negotiated. Commander-in-Chief MacArthur, who led the troops, wanted to liberate North Korea from Communist control and ordered the troops to cross. President Truman fired MacArthur.

In addition to his professorship at Princeton and his advisory roles, Morgenstern also worked at the National Bureau for Economic Research from 1940 until 1959. During that period he spent time back in Europe, as a Visiting Professor in Münster in 1956 and as a Visiting Professor in Basel in 1959-60. At this time, in collaboration with the Austrian-American sociologist and mathematician Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (1901-1976), he worked toward founding the Institut für Höhere Studien in Vienna, becoming a member of the academic advisory council in 1960. The Institute, which specialises in social sciences, opened in 1963.

Morgenstern was an editor of the journal

*Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie*from 1956, of the journal

*Zeitschrift für Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie*from 1962, of the journal

*Decision and Control*from 1965, and the

*International Journal of Game Theory*from 1970. In 1969 he became the first chairman of Mathematica Policy research, now known as Mathematica Inc and not to be confused with Wolfram Mathematica [8]:-

Mathematica is a technical consulting, policy research and computer software system firm working in the areas of national policy studies, operations research, system analysis, economic analysis, opinion research, computer software systems, survey development, and the design and development of public gaming systems. Its services are utilised by federal, state and local government agencies, as well as by private industry, trade associations and educational and non-profit organisations.In 1970 Morgenstern retired from his Professorship at Princeton and was made emeritus. He had already received six invitations from American universities to join them but none from Austrian universities. Although he would have liked to return to Austria, he accepted the offer from New York University and spent six years there as Distinguished Professor in Game Theory and Mathematical Economics.

He received honorary degrees from the universities of Mannheim (1957), Basel (1960) and Vienna (1965). In 1976 he was elected a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association [34]:-

A spirit of innovation, a deep but constructive scepticism, combined with a great ability to suggest important overlooked problems and new ways to approach them, have marked Oskar Morgenstern's long and productive life. His searching interest in the paradox of perfect foresight was followed by his fruitful collaboration with John von Neumann on the 'Theory of Games'. His work on the accuracy of economic information is a continuing challenge to the profession. His most recent book with Gerald Thompson, 'Mathematical Theory of Expanding and Contracting Economies', is a further development of Morgenstern's early interest in business cycle theory combined with the von Neumann model of an expanding economy. His ability to inspire his students and colleagues and his perseverance in identifying and pressing forward to the solution of fundamental problems in economic theory are basic traits of his unique distinction.Following his death in July 1977, he was buried in Princeton Cemetery, Mercer County, New Jersey. Two years after his death, his wife Dorothy Morgenstern married Harris Henderson Thomas on Monday 28 July 1979. Harris Henderson Thomas taught at the Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, for 40 years. Following her death in Chapel Hill, North Carolina on 25 October 2008, Dorothy was buried with Oskar Morgenstern in Princeton Cemetery.

### References (show)

- A bibliography of the work of Oskar Morgenstern, in
*Rudolf Henn and Otto Moeschl (eds.), Mathematical economics and game theory*(Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New York, 1977), 695-709. - K W Arenson, Mathematica's Shift Into Software Field,
*The New York Times*(22 February 1983). - T Barna, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Economica, New Series***13**(50) (1946), 136-138. - J Bewersdorff,
*Luck, logic, and white lies: the mathematics of game*s (Peters/CRC Press, 2004), 368. - A H Copeland, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society***51**(7) (1945), 498-504. - W E Deming, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***40**(230) (1945), 263-265. - R W Dimand and M A Dimand, Von Neumann and Morgenstern in Historical Perspective,
*Revue d'économie politique***105**(4) (1995), 539-557. - T Fabian, The Oskar Morgenstern Distinguished Fellowship at Mathematica,
*Management Science***24**(1) (1977), 117-118. - G Favero and P Modesti, After von Neumann and Morgenstern: the debate from the 1940s to the 1950s (Italian),
*Mat. Soc. Cult. Riv. Unione Mat. Ital.*(I)**6**(2) (2013), 263-298; 352-353. - C Fleck,
*Transatlantische Bereicherungen: zur Erfindung der empirischen Sozialforschung*(Suhrkamp, Berlin, 207). - H Guitton, Hommage a Oskar Morgenstern: 1902-1977,
*Revue d'économie politique***88**(2) (1978), 269. - E J Gumbel, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science***239**(1945), 209-210. - R W Harrison, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Journal of Farm Economics***27**(3) (1945), 725-726. - D Hawkins, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Philosophy of Science***12**(3) (1945), 221-227. - R Henn and O Moeschlin, The scientific work of Oskar Morgenstern, in
*Rudolf Henn and Otto Moeschl (eds.), Mathematical economics and game theory*(Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New York, 1977), 1-9. - L Hurwiez, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (2nd edition), by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*The Annals of Mathematical Statistics***19**(3) (1948), 436-437. - L O Kattsoff, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Social Forces***24**(2) (1945), 245-246. - M G Kendall, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society***107**(3-4) (1944), 293. - H W Kuhn, Introduction, in
*John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior: 60th Anniversary Commemorative Edition*(Princeton University Press, 2007), vii-xiv.

https://press.princeton.edu/books/paperback/9780691130613/theory-of-games-and-economic-behavior#preview - H W Kuhn and A W Tucker, John von Neumann's work in the theory of games and mathematical economics,
*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc.***64**(3) (1958), 100-122. - R J Leonard,
*Von Neumann, Morgenstern and the Creation of Game Theory*(Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010). - R J Leonard, From Parlor Games to Social Science: Von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the Creation of Game Theory 1928-1944,
*Journal of Economic Literature***33**(2) (1995), 730-761. - R J Leonard, "Between Worlds," or an Imagined Reminiscence by Oskar Morgenstern about Equilibrium and Mathematics in the 1920s,
*Journal of the History of Economic Thought***26**(3) (2004), 285-310. - R J Leonard, Creating a Context for Game Theory, in
*E Roy Weintraub (ed.), Toward a history of game theory*(Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 1992), 29-76. - P Mirowski, What were von Neumann and Morgenstern trying to accomplish?, in
*E Roy Weintraub (ed.), Toward a history of game theory*(Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 1992), 113-147. - O Morgenstern, The Collaboration Between Oskar Morgenstern and John von Neumann on the Theory of Games,
*Journal of Economic Literature***14**(3) (1976), 805-816. - E N, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*The Journal of Philosophy***42**(20) (1945), 550-554. - J Niehans,
*A history of economic theory: classic contributions, 1720-1980*(Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), 394. - Oskar Morgenstern,
*Encyclopaedia Britannica*(2024).

https://www.britannica.com/money/Oskar-Morgenstern - Oskar Morgenstern,
*Econlib*(2024).

https://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Morgenstern.html - Oskar Morgenstern,
*informs*(2024).

https://www.informs.org/Explore/History-of-O.R.-Excellence/Biographical-Profiles/Morgenstern-Oskar - Oskar Morgenstern,
*Mises Institute*(2024).

https://mises.org/profile/oskar-morgenstern - Oskar Morgenstern,
*Encyclopedia.com*(2024).

https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/morgenstern-oskar - Oskar Morgenstern: Distinguished Fellow 1976,
*The American Economic Review***67**(3) (1977). - Oskar Morgenstern, 1902-1977,
*The History of Economic Thought*(2024).

https://www.hetwebsite.net/het/profiles/morgenstern.htm - Oskar Morgenstern Is Dead at 75; Economic Game Theory Pioneer,
*The New York Times*(27 July 1997). - Oskar Morgenstern Papers,
*Duke University Library*(2024).

https://archives.lib.duke.edu/catalog/morgenst - L W Pauly, The League of Nations and the Foreshadowing of the International Monetary Fund,
*Essays in International Finance***201**(Princeton University, 1996). - U Rellstab, New insights into the collaboration between John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern on the Theory of games and economic behavior, in
*E Roy Weintraub (ed.), Toward a history of game theory*(Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 1992), 77-93. - E Roy Weintraub and E L Forget,
*Economists' lives: biography and autobiography in the history of economics*(Duke University Press, 2007), 234. - H Sack, Oskar Morgenstern and the Game Theory,
*SciHi*(23 January 2021).

http://scihi.org/oskar-morgenstern-game-theory/ - A Schotter, Oskar Morgenstern's Contribution to the Development of the Theory of Games, in
*E Roy Weintraub (ed.), Toward a History of Game Theory*(Duke University Press, Durham, 1992), 95-112. - A Schotter, Portrait: Oskar Morgenstern,
*Challenge***19**(1) (1976), 57-58. - D Shapley , Game theorist Morgensten dies,
*Science***197**(4304) (1977), 649. - M Shubik, Oskar Morgenstern, in
*J Eatwell, M Milgate and P Newman (eds.), Game Theory*(Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1989), 164-166. - M Shubik, The Contribution of Oskar Morgenstern, in
*Essays in Mathematical Economics, in Honor of Oskar Morgenstern*(Princeton University Press, 1967), vii-viii. - M Shubik, Oskar Morgenstern: Mentor and friend,
*International Journal of Game Theory***7**(3-4) (1978), 131-135. - L Silk, The Game Theorist,
*The New York Times*(13 February 1977).

https://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~fczagare/Game%20Theory/Handouts/The%20Game%20Theorist.PDF - H A Simon, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*American Journal of Sociology***50**(6) (1945), 558-560. - C A B Smith, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*The Mathematical Gazette***29**(285) (1945), 131-133. - The New York Times Biographical Service
**8**(New York Times & Arno Press, 1977), 276. - J Veisdal, Oskar Morgenstern's Transformation (1925-38): The Austrian economist who fell in love with mathematics,
*Privatdozent*(27 August 2021).

https://www.privatdozent.co/p/oskar-morgensterns-transformation - T P Wakefield, Review: Von Neumann, Morgenstern and the Creation of Game Theory, by Robert Leonard,
*Mathematical Reviews*MR2884327. - A Wald, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
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*Mathematical Reviews*MR0021298**(9,50f)**. - L Weisner, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*Science & Society***9**(4) (1945), 366-369. - L R Wilcox, Review: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern,
*A Review of General Semantics***4**(2) (1947), 129-131. - Oskar Morgenstern, o. Univ.-Prof. Dr. rer. pol., Dr. jur. h.c.,
*University of Vienna*(2024).

https://geschichte.univie.ac.at/en/persons/oskar-morgenstern

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