# Serge Mikhalovich Nikolski

### Quick Info

Zavod Talitsa, Perm Province, Russian Empire

Moscow, Russia

### Biography

Perhaps the first comment we should make at the beginning of this biography is to say that we have not made an error in giving**Serge** Mikhalovich Nikolski 's dates of birth and death above; he really did live to be 107 years old. The second comment is to say that his name appears in various different transliterations, the most common versions of his first name being

**Serge**and

**Sergey**while that of his family name is

**Nikol'ski**,

**Nikolski**,

**Nikolski**, and

**Nikolsky**. We have never seen anything other than

**Mikha**lovich for his patronymic. His place of birth, the small Zavod Talitsa settlement in Perm Province, is now the city of Talitsa in the Sverdlovsk Region. The final comment to make about the data in our heading regards the date of his birth. When he was born in 1905 the Russians were still using the Old Style Julian Calendar. Only on 31 January 1918 did the Bolshevik government adopt the Gregorian Calendar which required 13 days to be added. For this reason his date of birth sometimes appears as 17 April 1905 (correct at the time of his birth) and, at other times, 30 April 1905 (the corrected date in the Gregorian Calendar).

Serge

At the end of July 1914 France began mobilizing its troops and, on 1 August, Germany declared war on Russia, declaring war on France two days later. With the outbreak of war, the Nikolski

At the age of fourteen Serge

*Elements of Mathematical Analysis*which was written in a very intuitive way. By 1921 Serge

There is now a granite monument in the forest at the spot of his murder. The bandits also destroyed the meteorological station, turning it into a pile of glass and metal. It was not reconstructed in its previous distinctive form.After Mikha

In 1925 NikolskiNikolskidecided to go to another town in order to attend an institute of higher education. But at the time such institutes admitted students only by recommendations from social organisations. He could not get a recommendation to a technical institute. Nikolski tried in 1925 to enter the Kiev Polytechnical Institute without a recommendation, but he was rejected, not even given an examination. A trade union offered him a recommendation to Ekaterinoslav University, then called the Institute of National Education, and he went there. Thus, Nikolski found himself in Ekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk).

Grigory Alekseevich was the son of Aleksii Petrovich Gruzintsev, the professor of physics at Kharkov University. He graduated from a gymnasium in 1898 and began his studies in the Physics and Mathematics faculty of Kharkov University. He was sent away from the university in 1901 and given no right to return. He became acquainted with Sergi Bernstein and attended seminars of such famous mathematicians as Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. Gruzintsev graduated with an external degree from Kharkov University in 1908 and, in 1910, he was appointed as a docent at that university [44]:-

Not long before the 1914 war Gruzintsev, then a lecturer at Kharkov University, was sent to Göttingen to complete his education in the sciences. There he attended a seminar of Hilbert. However, the imperialistic war began, and Gruzintsev had to move to Switzerland and then to Italy, where he was at universities during the whole war, and only after the 1917 revolution did he return to Russia, having been appointed to the post of professor at the recently opened Ekaterinoslav University. There he taught courses in mathematical analysis and foundations of geometry. A serious illness (tuberculosis) did not allow him to implement his research ideas in the area of the foundations of mathematics, but the influence on students of his lectures and seminars, which were infrequent because of sickness, was enormous. He died in 1929.We have given quite a few details about Gruzintsev since we believe that he was important in changing Nikolski

Let us explain at this point that the city of Ekaterinoslav was renamed Dnipropetrovsk in 1926. The name change followed the Ukrainian War of Independence (1917-1921) after which Ukraine became part of the Soviet Union. The name Dnipropetrovsk was chosen so that the city was named for Grigory Petrovsky, the Communist leader of the country. Ekaterinoslav University was founded in 1918, but renamed Ekaterinoslav Institute of Education in 1920. After the city changed its name, the Institute became Dnipropetrovsk Institute of Education but in 1933 it became Dnipropetrovsk State University. Let us, for simplicity, just refer to it as Dnipropetrovsk University.

Nikolski

After Aleksii Petrovich Gruzintsev died in 1929, Isaak E Ogievetskii was appointed to the chair of mathematics at Dnipropetrovsk. He was very successful obtaining grants from different institutes to allow him to invite leading mathematicians to lecture at Dnipropetrovsk. Pavel Sergeevich Aleksandrov, Benjamin Fedorovich Kagan, Ivan Georgievich Petrovsky and Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov made frequent visits and gave lectures at Dnipropetrovsk. Kolmogorov, who had been appointed a professor at Moscow University in 1931, was very impressed by Nikolski

Nikolski

Nikolski

*Linear equations in Banach space*in 1935 and, after defending his thesis, was awarded the degree. He continued teaching at Dnipropetrovsk until late 1940 when he moved, with his wife and son Yuri, to Moscow. In Moscow he studied for his doctorate (equivalent in level to the habilitation or D.Sc.) at the at the Institute of Mathematics, which was later named the Steklov Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In January 1941, he moved with his wife and son to the Ukhtomskaya suburbs of Moscow.

World War II broke out on 1 September 1939 when German troops entered Poland. On 22 September, Russian troops entered Poland occupying Bialystok and five days later Warsaw fell to the Germans and, following the Molotov-Ribbentrop non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union, Poland was partitioned between these two powers. The Molotov-Ribbentrop non-aggression pact meant that the initial years of the World War II had little effect on life in Russia and, in particular, none on Nikolski

In late 1941 members of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow were evacuated to Kazan where they were housed in Kazan University and Nikolski

*On the theory of the approximation of functions by polynomials*in January 1942, while in Kazan, before a committee consisting of Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond, Boris Mikhailovich Gagaev (1897-1975) and Abraham Ezechiel Plessner. Returning to Moscow, he continued to undertake research at the Steklov Mathematical Institute but also worked as Head of the Department of Mathematics at the Moscow Automobile and Road Institute.

In 1947 Nikolski

In September 1954 the International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Amsterdam. Nikolski

*Einige Fragen der Approximation von Funktionen durch Polynome*Ⓣ. For an English translation of the Introduction to Nikolski

To gain an overview of Nikolski

The solutions of many problems in analysis make use either of the fact that certain functions can be represented by means of an integral involving some of its derivatives (or differences) or of the fact that its derivatives have an integral representation (or approximation) involving the original function and an appropriate kernel. The fundamental theorem of the calculus is the prototype of such integral representations. The possibility of obtaining such formulas leads to the study of various function spaces, defined in terms of certain Hölder conditions (usually called Lipschitz or Besov spaces) and differentiability conditions, and the relations among them.Nikolski

Such studies have been carried out by many investigators in several countries. The Russian school in this subject, which is now led by Nikolski, has been particularly active during the past two decades. Nikolski 's book 'Approximation of Functions of Several Variables and Imbedding Theorems' (Springer-Verlag, 1975) presented the work of his school done prior to the seventies, which involved, mainly, the study of functions defined in all of $\mathbb{R}^{n}$.

*Integral Representations of Functions and Embedding Theory*(1977); awarded the Bolzano medal of the Czech Academy of Sciences (1979); awarded the USSR State Prize for the three-volume textbook

*Higher Mathematics: A Textbook for High Schools*(co-authored with I S Bugrov) (1987); awarded the I M Vinogradov Gold Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences for a series of works on the theory of approximations of functions (1991); awarded the Copernicus medal of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1992); awarded the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology for the series of scientific papers

*"Theory of splines and its application in optimizing approximations"*(1994); awarded the A N Kolmogorov Prize of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the series of works

*"Approximation of Functions on Varieties and Their Continuation"*(2000), awarded the M V Ostrogradski Prize from the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (2000); awarded the Government of the Russian Federation prize for

*"Advanced mathematical training of engineering physics and physical and technical University's Specialties"*(2002); awarded the Moscow State University M V Lomonosov Prize for his outstanding contribution to the development of education (2005).

As we noted right at the start of this biography, Nikolski

He died in Moscow and was buried in the Troekurovsky cemetery on 14 November 2012.

### References (show)

- L D Kurdryavtsev, O V Besov, V A Ilin, P I Lizorkin, S I Pokhozhaev and S B Stechkin (eds.),
*Theory and Applications of Differentiable Functions of Several Variables: Collection of Papers : Dedicated to Academician Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii on His Eighty-fifth Birthday*(American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 1994). - S M Nikolskii,
*Recollections*(Russian), Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk, Matematicheskii Institut im. V A Steklova (MIAN) (Moscow, 2003). - A A Rusakov and V N Chubarikov,
*Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskij, Legend of Century, Modern Problems of Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science*(Fazis, Moscow, 2005). - B G Bakulov, N K Karapetyants, Yu F Korobeinik, A G Kusraev and S G Samko, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on the occasion of his hundredth birthday) (Russian),
*Vladikavkaz. Mat. Zh.***7**(2) (2005), 5-10. - O V Besov, On the works of S M Nikolskii in the theory of function spaces and its applications (Russian),
*Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova***232**(2001), 25-30. - O V Besov, On the works of S M Nikolskii in the theory of function spaces and its applications,
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***2001**(1)(232) (2001), 19-24. - O V Besov, E A Volkov, V K Dzyadyk, N P Korneichuk, L D Kurdryavtsev and P I Lizorkin, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his eighty-fifth birthday), in L D Kurdryavtsev, O V Besov, V A Ilin, P I Lizorkin, S I Pokhozhaev and S B Stechkin (eds.),
*Theory and Applications of Differentiable Functions of Several Variables: Collection of Papers : Dedicated to Academician Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii on His Eighty-fifth Birthday*(American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 1994), 1-9. - O V Besov, E A Volkov, V K Dzyadyk, N P Korneichuk, L D Kurdryavtsev and P I Lizorkin, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his eighty-fifth birthday) (Russian),
*Trudy Mat. Inst. Steklov***201**(15) (1992), 3-13. - O V Besov, E A Volkov, V K Dzyadyk, N P Korneichuk, L D Kurdryavtsev and P I Lizorkin, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his eighty-fifth birthday),
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***1994**(2)(201) (1994), 1-9. - O V Besov, S V Bochkarev, E A Volkov, et al., His mathematical century (in memory of Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii) (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***68**(3)(411) (2013), 205-207. - O V Besov, S V Bochkarev, E A Volkov, et al., His mathematical century (in memory of Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii),
*Russian Math. Surveys***68**(3) (2013), 591-594. - O V Besov, S V Bochkarev, V S Vladimirov, et al., Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on the occasion of his ninetieth birthday) (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***50**(6)(306) (1995), 223-228. - O V Besov, S V Bochkarev, V S Vladimirov, et al., Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on the occasion of his ninetieth birthday),
*Russian Math. Surveys***50**(6) (1995), 1321-1327. - O V Besov and V I Burenkov, To the memory of Academician Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii,
*Eurasian Math. J.***3**(4) (2012), 6-9. - O V Besov, V A Sadovnichii and S A Telyakovskii, On the scientific activity of S M Nikolskii (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***60**(6)(366) (2005), 5-20. - O V Besov, V A Sadovnichii and S A Telyakovskii, On the scientific activity of S M Nikolskii,
*Russian Math. Surveys***60**(6) (2005), 1005-1020. - A N Kolmogorov and S B Stechkin, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his fiftieth birthday) (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***11**(2)(68) (1956), 239-244. - V K Dzyadyk, A N Kolmogorov and L D Kurdryavtsev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his sixtieth birthday) (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***20**(5)(125) (1965), 275-287. - V K Dzyadyk, A N Kolmogorov and L D Kurdryavtsev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his sixtieth birthday),
*Russian Math. Surveys***20**(5) (1965), 193-205. - V K Dzyadyk, A N Kolmogorov and L D Kurdryavtsev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his seventieth birthday) (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***30**(4) (184) (1975), 271-280. - V K Dzyadyk, A N Kolmogorov and L D Kurdryavtsev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his seventieth birthday),
*Russian Math. Surveys***30**(4) (1975), 193-202. - V K Dzyadyk, A N Kolmogorov, L D Kurdryavtsev and S L Sobolev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his eightieth birthday) (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***50**(5)(245) (1985), 269-278. - V K Dzyadyk, A N Kolmogorov, L D Kurdryavtsev and S L Sobolev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on his eightieth birthday),
*Russian Math. Surveys***40**(5) (1985), 251-263. - S I Grozdev, A A Rusakov and B I Sendov, Distinguished mathematician and educator S M Nikolskij,
*J. Bulg Acad Sci.***1**(2013), 63-65. S I Grozdev, A A Rusakov and B I Sendov, A life a model example,*J. Bul. Acad. Sci.***1**(2011), 31-39. - In memory of Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (Russian),
*Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova***279**(2012), 7-8. - In memory of Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii,
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***279**(1) (2012), 1-2. - M K Kerimov, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on the occasion of his hundredth birthday) (Russian),
*Zh. Vychisl. Mat. Mat. Fiz.***46**(3) (2006), 363-371. - M K Kerimov, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on the occasion of his hundredth birthday),
*Comput. Math. Math. Phys.***46**(3) (2006), 345-353. - N P Korneichuk, S M Nikolskii and the development of investigations in the theory of approximation of functions in the USSR (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***40**(1)(241) (1985), 71-131. - N P Korneichuk, S M Nikolskii and the development of investigations in the theory of approximation of functions in the USSR,
*Russian Math. Surveys***40**(5) (1985), 83-156. - N P Korneichuk, S M Nikolskii and the Soviet school of approximation theory (Russian),
*Trudy Mat. Inst. Steklov***180**(1987), 3-12. - N P Korneichuk, S M Nikolskii and the Soviet school of approximation theory,
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***1989**(3)(180) (1989), 1-10. - L D Kurdryavtsev, On the work of S M Nikolskii in the theory of differentiable functions of several variables (Russian),
*Trudy Mat. Inst. Steklov***180**(1987), 12-22. - L D Kurdryavtsev, On the work of S M Nikolskii in the theory of differentiable functions of several variables,
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***1989**(3)(180) (1989), 11-21. - List of publications of S M Nikolskii (Russian),
*Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova***248**(2005), 8-25. - List of publications of S M Nikolskii,
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***2005**(1)(248) (2005), 2-20. - List of publications of S M Nikolskii (Russian),
*Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova***232**(2001), 31-32. - List of publications of S M Nikolskii (Russian),
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***2001**(1)(232) (2001), 25-26. - P I Lizorkin, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii,
*The Great Soviet Encyclopaedia*(1979). - L G Mikhailov, On the eightieth birthday of Academician S M Nikolskii (Russian),
*Izv. Akad. Nauk Tadzhik. SSR Otdel. Fiz.-Mat. Khim. i Geol. Nauk***1986**(2)(100) (1986), 128. - S M Nikolskii, About teaching the subject of algebra at school (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***40**(4)(244) (1985), 77-78. - S M Nikolskii, Some Words about Myself,
*Trudy Mat. Inst. Steklov***2001**(232) (2001), 8-18. - A A Rusakov, S M Nikolskii: mathematician and teacher (on the occasion of his hundredth birthday) (Russian),
*Chebyshevskii Sb.***6**(3)(15) (2005), 5-10. - A A Rusakov, The First Student of Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov, in
*V Mityushev and M V Ruzhansky (eds.), Analytic Methods in Interdisciplinary Applications*(Springer 2015), 125-152. - A A Rusakov, S M Nikolskii: mathematician and teacher (on the occasion of his hundredth birthday) (Russian),
*Chebyshevskii Sb.***6**(3)(15) (2005), 5-10. - A A Rusakov and Yu P Nikolaev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskij in school named after A N Kolmogorov, in
*A A Rusakov (ed.), Proceedings of the International Scientific-Methodology Conference. Informatization of Education*(Tula University, 2006), 133-135. - A A Rusakov and V N Rusakova, Books and pedagogical ideas by S M Nikolskij in study of mathematics at school,
*All-Russian Scientific Conference, "Actual Problems of Mathematics Education"*(Adygeysky University Publ, Maikop, 2010), 180-184. - Sergey Mikhailovich Nikolsky,
*Prabook*. https://prabook.com/web/sergey_mikhailovich.nikolsky/3750191 - S A Telyakovskii, The works of S M Nikolskii in the theory of the approximation of functions (Russian),
*Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova***232**(2001), 19-24. - S A Telyakovskii, The works of S M Nikolskii in the theory of the approximation of functions,
*Proc. Steklov Inst. Math.***2001**(1)(232) (2001), 13-18. - S M Nikolskii (on the occasion of his hundredth birthday) (Russian),
*Mat. Zh.***5**(2)(16) (2005), 94. - Ya A Vagramenko and A A Rusakov, Outstanding mathematician and educator Nikolskij,
*Edu. Inform.***4**(2012), 3-7. - V S Vladimirov, V K Dzyadyk, N P Korneichuk and L D Kudryavtsev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on the occasion of his eightieth birthday) (Russian),
*Uspekhi Mat. Nauk***46**(3)(279) (1991), 207-214. - V S Vladimirov, V K Dzyadyk, N P Korneichuk and L D Kudryavtsev, Sergei Mikhailovich Nikolskii (on the occasion of his eightieth birthday),
*Russian Math. Surveys***46**(3) (1991), 241-250. - G Weiss, Review: Integral Representations of Functions and Imbedding Theorems, by Oleg V Besov, Valentin P Il'in, Sergei M Nikolskii and Mitchell H Taibleson,
*American Scientist***67**(6) (1979), 729-730.

### Additional Resources (show)

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Written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson

Last Update April 2020

Last Update April 2020